The Prevalence of High Anxiety and Substance Use in University Students in the Republic of Macedonia

Open access

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of high anxiety and substance use among university students in the Republic of Macedonia.

Material and methods: The sample comprised 742 students, aged 18–22 years, who attended the first (188 students) and second year studies at the Medical Faculty (257), Faculty of Dentistry (242), and Faculty of Law (55) within Ss. Cyril and Methodius Universityin Skopje. As a psychometric test the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used. It is a self-rating questionnaire used for measuring the severity of anxiety. A psychiatric interview was performed with students with BAI scores > 25. A self-administered questionnaire consisted of questions on the habits of substance (alcohol, nicotine, sedative-hypnotics, and illicit drugs) use and abuse was also used. For statistical evaluation Statistica 7 software was used.

Results: The highest mean BAI scores were obtained by first year medical students (16.8 ± 9.8). Fifteen percent of all students and 20% of first year medical students showed high levels of anxiety. Law students showed the highest prevalence of substance use and abuse.

Conclusion: High anxiety and substance use as maladaptive behaviours among university students are not systematically investigated in our country. The study showed that students show these types of unhealthy reactions, regardless of the curriculum of education. More attention should be paid to students in the early stages of their education. A student counselling service which offers mental health assistance needs to be established within University facilities in R. Macedonia alongside the existing services in our health system.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Newbury-Birch D Lowry R Kamali F. The chan ging patterns of drinking illicit drug use stress an xiety and depression in dental students in a UK den tal school: a longitudinal study. Brit Dent J. 2002; 192: 646–649.

  • 2. Akvardar Y Demiral Y Ergor G Ergor A Bilici M Ozer A. Substance use in a sample of Turkish medical students. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003; 72: 117–121.

  • 3. Akvardar Y Demiral Y Ergor G Ergor A. Substan ce use among medical students and physicians in a medical school in Turkey. Soc Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2004; 39: 502–506.

  • 4. Vakefliu Y Argjiri D Peposhi I Sejdini A Melani SA. Tobacco Smoking Habits Beliefs and Attitudes among Medical Students in Tirana Albania. Prev Med. 2002; 34: 370–373.

  • 5. Dyrbye LN Thomas MR Shanafelt TD. Systematic review of depression anxiety and other indicators of psychological distress among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Acad Med. 2006; 81(4): 354–73.

  • 6. Levine RE Litwins BA Frye AW. An evaluation of depressed mood in two classes of medical students. Acad Psych. 2006; 30 (3): 235–237.

  • 7. Aktekin M Karaman T Senol YY. et al. Anxiety depression and stressful life events among medical students: a prospective study in Antalya Turkey. Med Educ. 2001; 35: 12–17.

  • 8. Mikolajczyk RT Maxwell AE Naydenova V. et al. Depressive symptoms and perceived burdens related to being a student: Survey in three European coun tries. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2008; 4:19. doi: 10.1186/1745-0179-4-19.

  • 9. Zivin K Eisenberg D Gollust SE Golberstein E. Persistence of mental health problems and needs in a college student population. J Affect Disord. (2009) doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.01.001.

  • 10. Bunevicius A Katkute A Bunevicius R. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in medical students and in humanities students: relationship with big-five per sonality dimensions and vulnerability to stress. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2008; 54(6): 494–501.

  • 11. Bostanci M Ozdel O Oguzhanoglu NK et al. Dep ressive symptomatology among university students in Denizli Turkey: prevalence and socio-demographic correlates. Croat Med J. 2005; 46(1): 96–100.

  • 12. Dammeyer MM Nunez N. Anxiety and depression among law students: current knowledge and future directions. Law Hum Behav. 1999; 23(1): 55–73.

  • 13. Preišegolavičiūtė E Leskauskas D Adomaitienė V. Associations of quality of sleep with lifestyle factors and profile of studies among Lithuanian students. Medicina (Kaunas). 2010; 46(7): 482–9.

  • 14. Andrade L Caraveo-Anduaga J Berglund P. Crossnational comparisons of the prevalence and cor relates of mental disorders. WHO International Con sortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78: 413–26.

  • 15. Cole DA Peeke LG Martin JM et al. A longitudinal look at the relation between depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1998; 66 (3): 451–460.

  • 16. Brown TA Campbell La Lehman CL et al. Current and lifetime comorbidity of DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Jour Abnorm Psychol. 2001; 110: 49–58.

  • 17. Beck AT Epstein N Brown G Steer RA. An inven tory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psy chology. 1988; 56: 893–897.

  • 18. Creamer M Foran J bell R. The Beck Anxiety Inventory in a non-clinical sample. Behav Res Ther. 1995; 33(4): 477–485.

  • 19. Pritchard ME McIntosh DN. What predicts adjust ment among law students? A longitudinal panel study. J Soc Psychol. 2003 Dec; 143(6): 727–45.

  • 20. Paterson F Lerman C Kaufmann VG et al. Ciga rette smoking practices among american college students: Review and future directions. Journal of American College Health. 2004; 52(5): 203–212.

  • 21. Mehanna Z Richa S. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in medical students in the Saint Joseph University of Beirut. Encephale. 2006; 32(6): 986–82.

  • 22. Smith CK Peterson DF Degenhardt BF Johnson JC. Depression anxiety and perceived hassles among entering medical students. Psychol Health Med. 2007; 12(1): 31–39.

  • 23. Chandavarkar U Azzam A Mathews C. Anxiety symptoms and perceived performance in medical students. Depress Anxiety. 2007; 24: 103–111.

  • 24. Senol Y Donmez L Turkay M Aktekin M. The incidence of smoking and risk factors for smoking initiation in medical faculty students: a cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2006; 6: 128.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2017: 0.45

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.177

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 131 64 5
PDF Downloads 85 56 2