Ethnicity in the historical process has been the main subject of political, economic, military and geographical change. Ethnicity, which was identical to the identity of tribes and clans before empires formed the basis of different phenomena in multi-ethnic national states. In this context, terms such as nation, race, ethnic minority, national minority etc. are used synonymously. The international structure formed aft er the collapse of the bipolar system. Concepts such as ethnic, ethnic group, minority, national minority, ethnic minority, nation, nation-state, ethnic-state, ethnic problems, ethnic discrimination have been brought to the agenda again and these concepts’ qualities and meanings have started to be reconsidered by scholars.
Ethnic issues not only affect internal politics but also external and international politics for countries which have ethnic groups in their society. Therefore, these effects are causing the questioning of the system of national-states which underlies the international system.
The Basque problem is characterised by the nationalist movements of the Basque society which is struggling for independence in Spain from the past to the present (the Basque society has been struggling for independence in Spain since 17th century) or who are working hard to achieve their special status. From the demands for privileges of the Basque separatist movement in Spain, the Basque problem is of great importance for the current Spanish political system.
In order to solve the problem, it is necessary to examine the mutual demands and solutions of Spain and the Basque Country. From this point of view, the Spanish Administration should be directed towards moderate policies and take into account the conditions of the region. The constitution must also guarantee individual and cultural rights. This study aims to observe the problems between the Basques and Spain historically and to understand the Basque ethnic phenomenon better.
Barger Ken. 2018. ‘Ethnocentrism’ Indiana University Indianapolis http://www.iupui.edu/~anthkb/ethnocen.htm.
Birch H. Anthony. 1989. ‘Nationalism and National Integration’ London Unwin Hyman.
Bloom William. 1990. ‘Personal Identity National Identity and International Relations’ Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
Braud Philippe. 1993. ‘La Violence Politique: Reperes et Problemes’ Cultures et Conflits Paris.
Brown Chris. 2001. ‘Identities Borders Orders: Rethinking International Relations Theory’ in Albert Mathias; Jacobsen David and Labid Yosef ed. Borders and Identity in International Political Theory Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press pp. 117–136.
Brown E. Michael. 1993. ‘Causes and Implications of Ethnic Conflict’ Ethnic Conflict and International Security by Michael E. Brown Princeton Princeton University Press pp. 3–26.
Brubaker Rogers and Laitin D. David. 1998. ‘Ethnic and Nationalist Violence’ Annu. Rev. Social 24: pp. 423–452.
Coakley John. 1992. ‘The Resolution of Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Typology’ International Political Science Review Vol. 13 No. 4 pp. 343–358.
Coakley John. 2003. ‘The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict’ Frank Cass London.
Cokmez Fatma. 2008. ‘Bask Bolgesi: Etnik Milliyetciligin Tarihsel Gelisimi ve Ispanya’daki Devlet Politikalarinin Etkisi (Basque Country: The Historical Development of Ethnic Nationalism and the Impact of State Policies in Spain)’ Ege Academic Perspective 8.
Connor Walker. 1978. ‘A Nation is a Nation is a State is an Ethnic Group Is a …’ Ethnic and Racial Studies 1 no. 4 pp. 378–400.
Connor Walker. 1994. ‘Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding’ Princeton New Jersey Princeton University Press.
Corcuera Javier. 1980. ‘Origenes Ideologicas y Organizacion des Nacionalismo Vasco 1876–1904’ Madrid.
Coverdale J. F. 1979. ‘The Political Transformation of Spain Aft er Franco’ New York: Praeger Special Studies.
Deutsch W. Karl. 1966. ‘Nationalism and Social Communication’ Second Ed. New York MIT Press.
Elorza Antonio. 1984. ‘Los Nacionalismos en el Estado Espanol Contemporaneo: Las Ideologias’ Estudios de Historia Social.
Gagnon V. 1995. ‘Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict’ In Global Dangers: Changing Dimensions of International Security edited by S. Lynn-Jones and S. Miller Cambridge MA MIT Press pp. 331–367
Galguly Rajat and Taras Ray. 1998. ‘Understanding Ethnic Conflict The International Dimension’ New York Longman.
Hall A. John. 1995. ‘Nationalism Classified and Explained’ in Periwal Sukumar ed. Notions of Nationalism Budapest CEU Press pp. 8–33.
Hall A. John. 2008. ‘Milletleri Turdeslestirmenin Kosullari (Conditions of Homogenization of Nations)’ in Ozkirimli Umut ed. 21. Yuzyilda Milliyetcilik (Nationalism in 21. Century) Istanbul Bilgi University Press Istanbul.
Hall Rodney. 1999. National Collective Identity: Social Constructs and International System’ New York Columbia University Press.
Heiberg Marianne. 1982. ‘Urban Politics and Rural Culture: Basque Nationalism’ London Scholl of Economics in Rokkan Stein and Urwin Derek. ‘The Politics of Territorial Identity; Studies in European’ London Sage Publications.
Hutchinson John. 1994. ‘Cultural Nationalism and Moral Regeneration’ in John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith eds Nationalism Oxford: Oxford University Press pp. 122–131.
Jervis R. 1978. ‘Cooperation under the Security Dilemma’ World Politics 30(2): pp. 167–214.
Johns Michael. 2004. ‘Europe’s Black Sheep: Explaining Ethnic Conflict in Corsica and the Basque Country’ International Studies Association Annual Meeting University of Maryland pp. 1–27.
Kalayci Huseyin. 2008. ‘Etnisite ve Ulus Karsilastirmasi (The Comparison of Ethnicity and Nation) Dogu-Bati 11–44 pp. 91–113.
Khazanov M. Anatoly. 1993. ‘Central Asia and Kazakhstan Today: Problems and Perspectives’ The National Council for Soviet and East European Research University of Wisconsin.
Kurubas Erol. 2008. ‘Etnik Sorunlar: Ulus-Devlet ve Etnik Gruplar Arasindaki Varolussal Iliski (Ethnic Problems: Existential Relations Between National-States and Ethnic Groups)’ Dogu Bati 11–44 pp. 11–41.
Kymlicka Will. 2000. ‘Modernity and National Identity’ Ethnic Challenges to the Modern Nation State Ed. By Shlomo Ben-Ami Alberto Spektorowski and Yoav Peled Macmillan Basingstoke England pp. 11–41.
Lake A. David and Rothchild Donald. 1996. ‘Containing Fear: The Origins and Management of Ethnic Conflict’ International Security Vol. 21 No. 2 pp. 41–75.
Larrea A. and Mieg M. 1985. ‘Introduction to the History of Basque Country’ Trans. by FAST M. G.
Lee Stephen. 1982. ‘Aspects of European History 1789–1980’ London.
Letamendia Pierre. 1987. ‘Nationalismes au Pays Basque’ Presse Universitaire de Bordeaux.
Loyer Barbara. 1997. ‘Geopolitique du Pays Basque Nations et Nationalismes en Espagne’ L’Harmattan Paris.
Oran Baskin. 1977. ‘Azgelismis Ulke Milliyetciligi Kara Afrika Modeli (The Nationalism of Underdevelopment Country Model of Africa) Ankara.
Oran Baskin. 1997. ‘Az Gelismis Ulke Milliyetciligi Kara Afrika Modeli (Underdeveloped Nationalism Black African Model) Ankara Bilgi Press.
Posen R. Barry. 1993. ‘The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict’ Ethnic Conflict and International Security by Michael E. Brown Princeton Princeton University Press pp. 103–123.
Posen R. Barry. 1993. ‘The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict’ Survival vol. 35 No. 1 pp. 27–47.
Roe Paul. 1993. ‘The Intrastate Security Dilemma: Ethnic Conflict as a ‘Tragedy’?’ Journal of Peace Research Vol. 36 No. 2 pp. 183–202.
Rokkan Stein and Derek Urwin. 1983. ‘Economy Territory Identity: Politics of West European Peripheries’ London: Sage.
Rokkan Stein. 1969. ‘Models and Methods in the Comparative Study of Nation-Building’ Acta Sociologica 12 (2): pp. 535–573.
Rustow Dankwart. 1967. ‘A World of Nations’ Washington DC Brooking Institution.
Smith D. Anthony. 1971. ‘Theories of Nationalism’ (Second Edn 1983) London Duckworth/New York Harper and Row.
Smith D. Anthony. 1986. ‘The Ethnic Origins of Nations’ Oxford Basil Blackwell Inc.
Smith D. Anthony. 1991. ‘National Identity’ Penguin Books.
Smooha Sammy and Hanf Thedeor. 1992. ‘The Diverse Modes of Conflict Regulation in Deep Divided Societies’ Ethnicity and Nationalism by Anthony D. Smith Leidin New York.
Stanovcic Vojislav. 1992. ‘Problems and Options in Institutionalizing Ethnic Relations’ International Political Science Review Vol. 13 No. 4 pp. 359–379.
Stavenhagen Rodolfo. 1996. ‘Ethnic Conflicts and the National-State’ London Macmillan Press Ltd.
Stavenhagen Rodolfo. 1998. ‘Ethnic Conflicts and Their Impact on International Society’ Blackwell Publishers pp. 433–445.
Waever Ole. 1995. ‘Securitization and Desecuritization’ in Ronny D. Lipschutz ed. On Security New York: Columbia University Press pp. 46–86.