Perceived competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust in work relations

Open access

Abstract

Many studies confirmed the positive effect of trust on human relations and performance in organizations. As a social judgment, trust should be related to perceived competence and warmth as two basic dimensions of person perception. Surprisingly, to date no attempts have been made to examine the influence of attributed competence and warmth on social judgments in interpersonal relations at work. To this end, we examine the influence of perceived competence and warmth on trust, liking and respect in upward and downward work relations. A study involving 190 middle-stage managers revealed that the two fundamental dimensions of social cognition (competence and warmth) influence respect, liking and trust. Competence had a stronger effect on respect than warmth; the opposite was true for liking. Trust was conditioned by both competence and warmth to an equal, high extent. At the same time, warmth expressed by supervisors led to higher results in liking, respect and trust in them than warmth expressed by subordinates.

Abele, A.E., Rupprecht, T., & Wojciszke, B. (2008). The influence of success and failure experiences on agency. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(3), 436-448. doi:

Abele, A.E., Uchronski, M., Suitner, C., & Wojciszke, B. (2008). Towards an operationalization of the fundamental dimensions of agency and communion : Trait content ratings in five countries considering valence and frequency of word occurrence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(7), 1202-1217. doi:

Abele, A., & Wojciszke, B. (2007). Agency and communion from the perspective of self versus others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5), 751-63. doi:

Abele, A., & Wojciszke, B. (2014). Communal and agentic content in social cognition: A dual perspective model. In M. Zanna & J. Olson (Eds.), Advances In Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 50, pp. 195-255). Burlington: Academic Press.

Aryee, S., Budhwar, P., & Chen, Z. (2002). Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test of a social exchange model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(3), 267-285. doi:

Bertolotti, M., Catellani, P., Douglas, K.M., & Sutton, R.M. (2013). The “Big Two” in Political Communication. Social Psychology, 44(2), 117-128. doi:

Brambilla, M., Rusconi, P., Sacchi, S., & Cherubini, P. (2011). Looking for honesty: The primary role of morality (vs. sociability and competence) in information gathering. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(2), 135-143. doi:

Bruckmüller, & Abele. (2013). The Density of the Big Two. Social Psychology, 44(2), 63-74. doi:

Cislak, A. (2013). Effects of Power on Social Perception. All Your Boss Can See is Agency. Social Psychology, 44(2), 138-146. doi:

Colquitt, J.A., Scott, B.A., & LePine, J.A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: A meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909-927. doi:

Cuddy, A., Fiske, S., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and Competence as Universal Dimensions of Social Perception : The Stereotype Content Model and the BIAS Map. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 40(07). doi:

Davis, J.H., Schoorman, F.D., Mayer, R.C., & Tan, H.H. (2000). The trusted general manager and business unit performance: empirical evidence of a competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 21(5), 563-576. doi:

Dirks, K.T., & Ferrin, D.L. (2001). The Role of Trust in Organizational Settings. Organization Science, 12(4), 450-467. doi:

Edwards, J., & Cable, D. (2009). The value of value congruence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(3), 654-677. doi:

Fiske, S. (1993). Controlling other people: The impact of power on stereotyping. American Psychologist, 48(6), 621-628. doi:

Fiske, S., Cuddy, A., Glick, P., Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902.

Fulmer, C.A., & Gelfand, M.J. (2012). At What Level (and in Whom) We Trust: Trust Across Multiple Organizational Levels. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1167-1230. doi:

Gillespie, N.A., & Mann, L. (2004). Transformational leadership and shared values: the building blocks of trust. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(6), 588-607. doi:

Gulati, R., & Sytch, M. (2007). Dependence Asymmetry and Joint Dependence in Interorganizational Relationships: Effects of Embeddedness on a Manufacturer’s Performance in Procurement Relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(1), 32-69. doi:

Judd, C.M., James-Hawkins, L., Yzerbyt, V., & Kashima, Y. (2005). Fundamental dimensions of social judgment: understanding the relations between judgments of competence and warmth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(6), 899-913. doi:

Langfred, C.W. (2004). Too much of a good thing? Negative effects of high trust and individual autonomy in self-managing teams. Academy of Management Journal, 47(3), 385-399. doi:

Lee, K., Yang, G., & Graham, J.L. (2006). Tension and trust in international business negotiations: American executives negotiating with Chinese executives. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(5), 623-641. doi:

Matzler, K., & Renzl, B. (2006). The relationship between interpersonal trust, employee satisfaction, and employee loyalty. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17(10), 1261-1271.

Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H., & Schoorman, F.D. (1995). An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734. doi:

Mayer, R.C., & Gavin, M.B. (2005). Trust in management and performance: who minds the shop while the employees watch the boss? Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 874-888. doi:

McAllister, D. (1995). Affect-and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 24-59.

Olekalns, M., & Smith, P.L. (2007). Loose with the Truth: Predicting Deception in Negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(2), 225-238. doi:

Rosenberg, S., Nelson, C., & Vivekananthan, P.S. (1968). A multidimensional approach to the structure of personality impression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 9(4), 283-294. doi:

Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 393-404. doi:

Sargent, L.D., & Waters, L.E. (2004). Careers and academic research collaborations: An inductive process framework for understanding successful collaborations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(2), 308-319. doi:

Simons, T., & Peterson, R. (2000). Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: The pivotal role of intragroup trust. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 102-111. doi:

Simpson, J.A. (2007). Psychological Foundations of Trust. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(5), 264-268. doi:

Singh, U., & Srivastava, K.B.L. (2009). Interpersonal trust and organizational citizenship behavior. Psychological Studies, 54(1), 65-76. doi:

Todorov, A., Pakrashi, M., & Oosterhof, N.N. (2009). Evaluating Faces on Trustworthiness After Minimal Time Exposure. Social Cognition, 27(6), 813-833. doi:

Whitener, E.M., Brodt, S.E., Korsgaard, M.A., & Werner, J.M. (1998). Managers as initiators of trust: An exchange relationship framework for understanding managerial trustworthy behavior. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 513-530. doi:

Willis, J., & Todorov, A. (2006). First impressions: making up your mind after a 100-ms exposure to a face. Psychological Science, 17(7), 592-8. doi:

Wojciszke, & Abele. (2008). The primacy of communion over agency and its reversals in evaluations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 1139-1147. doi:

Wojciszke, Abele, & Baryla. (2009). Two dimensions of interpersonal attitudes : Liking depends on communion , respect depends on agency. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 973-990. doi:

Zaheer, A., Mcevily, B., & Perrone, V. (1998). Does Trust Matter? Exploring the Effects Interorganizational and Interpersonal Trust on Performance. Organization Science, 9(2), 141-159.

Polish Psychological Bulletin

The Journal of Committee for Psychological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.185
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.258

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 288 288 57
PDF Downloads 164 164 31