Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

Open access

Abstract

The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003) and the tendency to (1) create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM); (2) yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995), modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88) received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM) was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005). Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral). Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1) WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2) that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003), emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive). Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content) are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

Alberts, J. W. (2010). Inhibitory Control as a Mediator of Individual Differences in Rates of False Memories in Children and Adults. Unpublished manuscript, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

Atkins, A. S., Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2008). False working memories? Semantic distortion in a mere 4 seconds. Memory & Cognition, 36, 74-81.

Baddeley, A., Kopelman, D. M. i Wilson, B. A. (2002). The handbook of Memory Disorders. NJ: John Wiley & sons.

Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: An experimental and social study. Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Beato, M. S., Arndt, J. (2014). False recognition production indexes in forward associative strength (FAS) lists with three critical words. Psicothema, 26(4), 457-463.

Beato, M. S., Díez, E., (2011). False recognition production indexes in Spanish for 60 DRM lists with three critical words. Behavioral Research, 43, 499-507.

Bednarek, H. (2011). Czy piloci ulegają złudzeniom percepcyjnym? Poznawcze uwarunkowania dezorientacji przestrzennej. Sopot: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Bixter, M., Daniel, F. (2013). Working memory differences in illusory recollection of critical lures. Memory & Cognition, 41, 716-725.

Chaiwutikornwanich, A. (2005). The relationship of interrogative suggestibility to memory and attention. Unpublished manuscript, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Collins, A. M., Quillian, M. R. (1969). Retrieval time from semantic memory. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 8, 240-247.

Collins, A. M., Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82, 407-428.

Craik, F. I., Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 11, 671-684.

Dasse, M. N., Elkins, G. R. i Weaver III, C. A. (2015). Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 63(1), 110-128.

Deese, J. (1959). On the predictions of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58(1), 17-22.

Dehon, H. (2012). Illusory recollection: The compelling subjective remembrance of things that never happened. Insights from the DRM paradigm. Psychologica Belgica, 52, 121-149.

Dehon, H., Larøi, F. i Van der Linden, M. (2011). The influence of encoding style on the production of false memories in the DRM paradigm: New insights on individual differences in false memory susceptibility? Personality and Individual Differences, 50(5), 583-587.

Druey, M. D., Hübner, R. (2008). Response inhibition under task switching: its strength depends on the amount of task-irrelevant response activation. Psychological Research, 72, 515-527.

Eisen, M., Quas, J. A. i Goodman, G. S. (2002). Memory and suggestibility in the forensic interview. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Flegal, K. E., Reuter-Lorenz, P. A. (2014). Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory. Memory & Cognition, 42(5), 701-711.

Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A. (2004). The relations among inhibition and interference control functions: a latent-variable analysis. Journal of experimental psychology: General, 133, 101-135.

Gallo, D. A. (2006). Associate Illusions of Memory: Research on False Memory for Related Events. Associative Illusions of Memory False Memory Research in DRM and Related Tasks. NJ: Psychology Press.

Gallo, D. A. (2013). Retrieval Expectations Affect False Recollection: Insights From a Criterial Recollection Task. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 316-323.

Gardiner, J. M., Java, R. I. (1991). Forgetting in recognition memory with and without recollective experience. Memory & Cognition, 19, 617-623.

Gheorghiu, V. A., Netter, P., Eysenck, M. i Rosenthal, R. (eds.) (2012). Suggestion and suggestibility: theory and research. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.

Gudjonsson, G. H. (1984a). A new scale of interrogative suggestibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 5(3), 303-314.

Gudjonsson, G. H. (1997). The Gudjonsson suggestibility scales. Hove: Psychology Press.

Gudjonsson, G. H. (2003). The psychology of interrogations and confessions: A handbook. NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Gudjonsson, G. H., Lister, S. (1984b). Interrogative suggestibility and its relationship with self-esteem and control. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 24(2), 99-110.

Hirst, W., Echterhoff, G. (2012). Remembering in conversations: The social sharing and reshaping of memories. Psychology, 63(1), 55-79.

Jachinski, U., Wentura, D. (2002). Misleading Postevent Information and Working Memory Capacity: An Indivual Differences Approach to Eyewitness Memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 223-231.

Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Perrig, W. J. i Meier, B. (2010). The concurrent validity of the N-back task as a working memory measure. Memory, 18(4), 394-412.

Jaeggi, S. M., Studer-Luethi, B., Buschkuehl, M., Su, Y., Jonides, J. i Perrig, W. J. (2010). The relationship between n-back performance and matrix reasoning - implications for training and transfer. Intelligence, 38, 625-635.

Jaschinski, U., Wentura, D. (2002). Misleading postevent information and working memory capacity: An individual differences approach to eyewitness memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16(2), 223-231.

Johansson, M., Stenberg, G. (2002). Inducting and reducting false memories: A Swedish Version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 369-383.

Johnson, K. J., Raye, C. L., Mitchell, K. J. i Ankudowich, E. (2012). The Cognitive Neuroscience of True and False Memories. True and False Recovered Memories. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 58, 15-52.

Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kantner, J., Lindsay, D. S. (2014). Cross-situational consistency in recognition memory response bias. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1272-1280.

Kiyonaga, A., Egner, T. i Soto, D. (2012). Cognitive control over working memory biases of selection. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 19(4), 639-646.

Kiyonaga, A., Egner, T. i Soto, D. (2013). Handbook of metamemory and memory. NJ: Psychology Press.

Laney, C., Loftus, E. F. (2013). Recent advances in false memory research. South African Journal of Psychology, 43, 137-146.

Lindsay, D. S. (2014). Remembering. NJ: Taylor & Francis.

Ling, Y. L., Ismail, F. i Abdullah, A. G. K. (2015). Feedback Environment and Creativity in Education Organizations. International Research in Education, 3(2), 121-130.

Lo, J. C., Sim, S. K. i Chee, M. W. (2014). Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. Sleep, 37(4), 665-671.

Loftus, E. F. (1975). Leading Questions and the Eyewitness Report. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 560-572.

Maciaszek, P. (2013a). Wpływ sprawności pamięci roboczej na powstawanie fałszywych wspomnień. Unpublished manuscript, Uniwersytet Łódzki: Łódź.

Maciaszek, P. (2013b). Fałszywe wspomnienia: jak to się dzieje, że umysł pamięta coś, czego nie było? Przegląd Filozofi czny - Nowa Seria, 86, 305-326.

Maciaszek, P. (2014a). Podstępne szparagi Elizabeth Loftus. Jak różnice indywidualne w funkcjonowaniu ludzi wpływają na liczbę fałszywych wspomnień powstających w pamięci. The proceedings of the 23rd Kolokwia Psychologii PAN, Wrocław; 16.06.2014.

Maciaszek, P. (2014b). Paradoks subiektywnej pewności: psychologiczne uwarunkowania powstawania błędów w zeznaniach szczerych. fałszywych wspomnień powstających w pamięci. The proceedings of the VII. Cracow Conference of Psychology and Law, Kraków, 12.10.2014.

Maciaszek, P. (2015, in press). Fałszywe wspomnienia: z pamięci semantycznej do epizodycznej. Analiza występowania poczucia pamiętania fałszywych wspomnień u osób badanych metodą list słów skojarzonych. Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Psychologica.

Maciuszek, J. (2012). Automatyzmy i bezrefl eksyjność w kontekście wpływu społecznego. PWN: Warszawa.

Meadea, M. L., Watson, J. M., Balota, D. A. i Roediger, H. L. (2007). The roles of spreading activation and retrieval mode in producing false recognition in the DRM paradigm. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 305-320.

Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P. (2012). The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions four general conclusions. Current directions in psychological science, 21(1), 8-14.

Monds, L. A., Paterson, H. M., Kemp, R. I. i Bryant, R. A. (2013). Individual Differences in Susceptibility to False Memories for Neutral and Trauma-Related Words. Psychiatry. Psychology and Law, 20, 399-411.

Murphy, K. R., Balzer, W. K. (1986). Systematic distortions in memory-based behavior ratings and performance evaluations: Consequences for rating accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(1), 39-44.

Navon, D. (1977). Forest before trees: the precedence of global features in visual perception. Cognitive psychology, 9, 353-383.

Nęcka, E., Chuderski, A. (2010). Intelligence and cognitive control. In A. Gruszka, G. Matthiews i B. Szymura (eds.) Handbook of individual differences in cognition: Attention, memory, and executive control, 263-281, Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Nichols, R. M. (2014). Not All False Memories Are Created Equal. Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Irvine.

Niedźwieńska, A. (2004). Poznawcze mechanizmy zniekształceń w pamięci zdarzeń. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.

Oberauer, K., Süß, H. M., Wilhelm, O., i Wittman, W. W. (2003). The multiple faces of working memory: Storage, processing, supervision, and coordination. Intelligence, 31, 167-193.

Olszewska, J., Ulatowska, J. (2013a). Creating associative memory distortions- a Polish adaptation of the DRM paradigm. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 44(4), 449-456.

Olszewska, J., Ulatowska, J. (2013b). Encoding strategy affects false recall and recognition: Evidence from categorical study material. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 9(1), 44-52.

Orzechowski, J. (2012). Magiczna liczba jeden, czyli co jeszcze zmieści się w pamięci roboczej. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.

Orzechowski, J., Balas, R., Piotrowski, K. i Stettner, Z. (eds.) (2009). Pamięć robocza. Warszawa: Academica.

Orzechowski, J., Maciaszek, P. (in press). Rozwiązywanie problemów. In S. Kołodziejczak (ed.). Przewodnik po kognitywistyce.

Ost, J., Blank, H., Davies, J., Jones, G., Lambert, K. (2013). False Memory: DRM Errors Are Unrelated to the Misinformation Effect. PLoS ONE, 8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057939.

Pimentel, E., Albuquerque, P. B. (2013). Effect of divided attention on the production of false memories in the DRM paradigm: A study of dichotic listening and shadowing, Psicológica, 34, 285-298.

Pohl, R. (2004). Cognitive illusions: A handbook on fallacies and biases in thinking, judgement and memory. NJ: Psychology Press.

Polczyk, R. (2007). Mechanizmy efektu dezinformacji w kontekście zeznań świadka naocznego. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego: Kraków.

Polczyk, R., Dukała, K. (2013). Podatność na sugestię u nastolatków i osób dorosłych-użyteczność kwestionariusza MISS w warunkach szkolnych. Kwartalnik Pedagogiczny, 2, 99-116.

Polczyk, R., Wesołowska, B., Gabarczyk, A., Minakowska, I., Supska, M. i Bomba, E. (2004). Age differences in interrogative suggestibility: A comparison between young and older adults. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18(8), 1097-1107.

Purić, D., Lalović, D. (2010). Evaluation of Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm in Serbian matherials and subject sample. Primenjena psihologija, 3(1), 5-22.

Roberts, P. (2002). Vulnerability to false memory: The effects of stress, imagery, trait anxiety, and depression. Current Psychology, 21(3), 240-252.

Roediger, H. L., McDermott, K. B., (1995). Creating False Memories: Remembering Words Not Presented In Lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21, 803-814.

Roediger, H. L., Meade, M. L., Gallo, D. A. i Olson, K. R. (2014). Bartlett revisited: Direct comparison of repeated reproduction and serial reproduction techniques. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3(4), 266-271.

Roediger, H. L., Watson, J. M., McDermott, K. B. i Gallo, D. A. (2001). Factors that determine false recall: A multiple regression analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8(3), 385-407.

Schacter, D. L., Coyle, J. T. (1997). Memory distortion: How minds, brains, and societies reconstruct the past. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Schacter, D. L., Verfaellie, M., Anes, M. D. i Racine, C. (1998). When true recognition suppresses false recognition: Evidence from amnesic patients. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 10(6), 668-679.

Sergi, I., Senese, V. P., Pisani, M. i Nigro, G. (2014). Assessing activation of true and false memory traces: A study using the DRM Paradigm. Psychologica Belgica, 54(1), 171-179.

Silbermann, A. (2007). Cognitive and Personality Differences Leading to Differential Induction of False Memories. Unpublished manuscript, Cornell University: NJ.

Smith, E. R., Engle, W. R. (2011). Study Modality and False Recall: The Influence of Resource Availability. Experimental Psychology, 58(2), 117-124.

Smith, R. E., Hunt, R. R. (1998). Presentation modality affects false memory. Psychonomic Buletin & Review, 5, 710-715.

Smith, R. E., Hunt, R. R., i Gallagher, M. P. (2008). The effect of study modality on false recognition. Memory & Cognition, 36(8), 1439-1449.

Sternberg, R. J., & Mio, J. S. (2009). Cognitive psychology. Australia: Cengage Learning/Wadsworth.

Storbeck, J. (2013). Negative affect promotes encoding of and memory for details at the expense of the gist: Affect, encoding, and false memories. Cognition & emotion, 27, 800-819.

Suggestibility. (n.d.). In Collins Dictionaries dictionary (12th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/suggestibility.

Swets, J. A., Green, D. M. (1963). Signal Detection By Human Observers. Massachusetts Inst Of Tech Cambridge Research Lab Of Electronics.

Szpitalak, M., Polczyk, R. (2014). Mental fatigue, mental warm-up, and self-reference as determinants of the misinformation effect. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry i Psychology, 25(2), 135-51.

Szpitalak, M., Polak, M., Polczyk, R. i Dukała, K. (2015). The influence of social, para-social, and nonsocial misleading post-event sources on memory performance. European Journal of Social Psychology.

Szpitalak, M., Polczyk, R. (2012). Efekt wzmocnionej autoafi rmacji - wzrost odporności na dezinformację wskutek autoafi rmacji wzmoc nionej pozytywną informacją zwrotną. Studia Psychologiczne, 50, 63-75.

Śpiewak, S. (2005). Poznawcze uwarunkowania wpływu społecznego. In M. Kossowska, M. Śmieja i Ś. Śpiewak. (eds.). Społeczne ścieżki poznania, 141-156, GWP: Gdańsk.

Śpiewak, S. (2013). Rozgrzewanie uwagi - wyczerpywanie woli - uległość. Mechanizmy adaptacji umysłu do wysiłku poznawczego. Scholar: Warszawa.

Tse, C., Neely, J. (2005). Assessing activation without source monitoring in the DRM false memory paradigm. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 532-550.

Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychologist, 26, 1-12.

Unsworth, N., Heitz, R. P., Schrock, J., Engle, R. W. (2005). An automated version of the operation span task. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 498-505.

Eisen, M. L., Quas, J. A. i Goodman, G. S. (eds.). (2001). Memory and suggestibility in the forensic interview. London: Routledge.

Wiesmann, M., Ishai, A. (2008). Recollection and familiarity-based decisions reflect memory strength. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 2, doi:10.3389/neuro.06.001.2008.

Witkin, H. A., Moore, C. A., Goodenough, D. R., i Cox, P. W. (1977). Field dependent and field independent cognitive styles and their educational implications. Review of Educational Research, 47, 1-64.

Wojciechowski, B. W. (2015). Analiza i ocena zeznań świadków. Sopot: GWP.

Yang, H., Yang, S., Ceci, S. J. i Isen, A. M. (2015). Positive affect facilitates the effect of a warning on false memory in the DRM paradigm. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 196-206.

Zhu, B., Chen, C., Loftus, E. F., Lin, C. i Dong, Q. (2013). The relationship between DRM and misinformation false memories. Memory & Cognition, 41, 832-838.

Zhu, B., Chen, C., Loftus, E. F., He, Q., Chen, C., Lei, X. i Dong, Q. (2012). Brief Exposure to Misinformation Can Lead to Long-Term False Memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(2), 301-307.

Zhua, B., Chenb, C., Loftus, E., Lina, C., Hea, Q., Chena, C., Lia, H., Moyzisc, R. K., Lessardb, J. i Donga, Q. (2010). Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: Personality characteristics and their interactions with cognitive abilities. Memory, 18, 543-555.

Polish Psychological Bulletin

The Journal of Committee for Psychological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.185
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.258

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 177 177 30
PDF Downloads 90 90 18