Meta-analysis of the research impact of Baddeley’s multicomponent working memory model and Cowan’s embedded-processes model of working memory: A bibliometric mapping approach

Open access


In this study bibliometric mapping method was employed to visualise the current research trends and the impact of the two most influential models of working memory, namely: A. D. Baddeley and G. J. Hitch’s (1974) multicomponent working memory model and N. Cowan’s (1988) embedded-processes model of working memory. Using VOSviewer software two maps were generated based on the index-term words extracted from the research papers citing Baddeley (2000) and Cowan (2001), respectively. The maps represent networks of co-occurrences of index terms and can be interpreted as an indication of the main research fields related to the examined models of WM. The results of the analysis revealed that the spheres of influence of the two main conceptualisations of WM are rather different than similar. Although the first two clusters, i.e. “brain mapping” and “higher-level cognition and development” are present in both maps, their relative importance varies. The remaining clusters are unique to each map. Baddeley’s theory seems to have a greater influence on “neuropsychology”, while Cowan’s theory - on basic research on “biological systems”, including the nervous system in humans and animals. The second difference between these theories concerns their relations to functions and dysfunctions associated with particular sensory modalities: in Baddelay’s theory with the “auditory modality” cluster, and in Cowan’s - with the “visual modality” one.

Allen, R. J., Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. J. (2006). Is the binding of visual features in working memory resource-demanding? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135(2), 298-313. 10.1037/0096-3445.135.2.298

Allen, R. J., Hitch, G. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2009). Cross-modal binding and working memory. Visual Cognition, 17(1-2), 83-102. 10.1080/13506280802281386

Baddeley, A. (2013). Essentials of human memory, classic edition. Essentials of human memory, classic edition (pp. 1-320). 10.4324/9780203587027

Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. T. (1974). Working memory. In: G.A. Bower (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (t. 2, pp. 47-90). New York: Academic Press.

Baddeley, A. D. & Logie, R. H. (1999). Working memory: The multiplecomponent model. In: A. Miyake, P. Shah (Eds.), Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control (pp. 28-61). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Baddeley, A. D. & Wilson, B. A. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: Implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia, 40, 737-1743. 10.1016/0749-596X(85)90041-5

Baddeley, A. D. (1982). Implications of neuropsychological evidence for theories of normal memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 298(1089), 59-72. 10.1098/rstb.1982.0072

Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417-423. 10.1016/ S1364-6613(00)01538-2

Baddeley, A. D., Vallar, G., & Wilson, B. (1987). Sentence comprehension and phonological memory: some neuropsychological evidence. In: M. Coltheart (Eds.), Attention and Performance (t. 12, pp. 509-529). Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Börner, K., Chen, C., & Boyack, K. W. (2006). Knowledge Domain Visualization. In C. Chen (Ed.), Information Visualization. Beyond the Horizon (pp. 143-171). London: Springer.

Carroll, L. M., Jalbert, A., Penney, A. M., Neath, I., Surprenant, A. M., & Tehan, G. (2010). Evidence for proactive interference in the focus of attention of working memory. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 208-214. 10.1037/a0021011

Chen, Z. & Cowan, N. (2009). Core verbal working memory capacity: The limit in words retained without covert articulation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1420-1429. 10.1080/17470210802453977

Cowan, N. (1988). Evolving conceptions of memory storage, selective attention, and their mutual constraints within the human information processing system. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 163-191. 10.1037/0033-2909.104.2.163

Cowan, N. (1995). Attention and Memory: An Integrated Framework. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87-185. 10.1177/0963721409359277

D’Esposito, M. & Postle, B. R. (1999). The dependence of the mnemonic components of working memory on prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 37, 89-101. 10.1016/S0028-3932(99)00021-4

Ecker, U. K. H., Lewandowsky, S., & Oberauer, K. (2014). Removal of information from working memory: A specific updating process. Journal of Memory and Language, 74, 77-90. 10.1016/j. jml.2013.09.003

Gathercole, S. E. (1999). Cognitive approaches to the development of short-term memory. Trends in Cognitive Science, 3, 410-418. 10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01388-1

Glass, A. C., Millen, D. R., Beck, L. G., & Eddy, J. K. (1985). Representation of images in sentence verifi cation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 245-262. 10.1016/0749-596X(85)90039-7

Halford, G. S., Mayberry, M. T., & Bain J. D. (1988). Set-size effects in primary memory: When reminders fail. Memory and Cognition, 16, 480-487. 10.3758/BF03214229

He, Q. (1999). Knowledge discovery through co-word analysis. Library Trends, 48(1), 133-151.

Kudlicka, A., Clare, L., & Hindle, J. V. (2011). Executive functions in Parkinson’s disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Movement Disorders, 26(13), 2305-2315.

Luck, S. J. & Vogel, E. K. (1997). The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature, 390, 279-281. 10.1038/36846

McErlee, B. (1998). Attended and non-attended states in working memory: Accessing categorized structures. Journal of Memory and Language, 38, 225-252. 10.1006/jmla.1997.2545

Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Mitchell, K. J., Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., & D’Esposito, M. (2000). fMRI evidence of age-related hippocampal dysfunction in feature binding in working memory. Cognitive Brain Research, 10, 197-206. 10.1016/S0926-6410(00)00029-X

Noyons, E. C. M., Moed, H. F., & Luwel, M. (1999). Combining mapping and citation analysis for evaluative bibliometric purposes: A bibliometric study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(2), 115-131. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(1999)50:2<115::AID-ASI3>3.0.CO;2-J \

Oberauer, K. & Vockenberg, K. (2009). Updating of working memory: Lingering bindings. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 967-987. 10.1080/17470210802372912

Orzechowski, J. (2012). Magiczna liczba jeden, czyli co jeszcze zmieści się w pamięci roboczej. Kraków: WUJ.

Parsons, T. (1938). The Role of Theory in Social Research. American Sociological Review, 3(1), 13. 10.2307/2083507

Prabhakaran, V., Narayanan, K., Zhao, Z., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2000). Integration of diverse information in working memory within the frontal lobe. Nature Neuroscience, 3(1), 85-90. 10.1038/71156

Rafols, I., & Meyer, M. (2010). Diversity and network coherence as indicators of interdisciplinarity: case studies in bionanoscience. Scientometrics, 82(2), 263-287. 10.1007/s11192-009-0041-y

Saults, J. S. & Cowan, N. (2007). A central capacity limit to the simultaneous storage of visual and auditory arrays in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136(4), 663-684. 10.1037/0096-3445.136.4.663

Tamlyn, D., McKenna, P. J., Mortimer, A. M., Lund, C. E., Hammond, S., & Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Memory impairment in schizophrenia: Its extent, affiliations and neuropsychological character. Psychological Medicine, 22(1), 101-115.

Tehan, G. & Humphreys, M. S. (1995). Transient phonemic codes and immunity to proactive interference. Memory and Cognition, 23, 181-192. 10.3758/BF03197220

Vallar, G., Papagno, C., & Baddeley, A. D. (1991). Long-term recency effects and phonological short-term memory. A neuropsychological case study. Cortex, 27(2), 323-326.

van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2010). Softan ware survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics, 84(2), 523-538. 10.1007/s11192-009-0146-3

van Eck, N. J. & Waltman, L. (2014). Visualizing Bibliometric Networks. In Y. Ding, R. Rousseau, & D. Wolfram (Eds.), Measuring Scholarly Impact (pp. 285-320). Cham: Springer International Publishing. 10.1007/978-3-319-10377-8_13

van Eck, N. J., Waltman, L., Dekker, R., & van den Berg, J. (2010). A comparison of two techniques for bibliometric mapping: Multidimensional scaling and VOS. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(12), 2405-2416. 10.1002/asi.21421

van Eck, N. J. & Waltman, L. (2011). Text mining and visualization using VOSviewer. ISSI Newsletter, 7(3), 50-54. 10.1016/j. joi.2014.07.006.

van Eck, N. J., Frasincar, F., & Chang, D. (2008). Cluster-Based Visualization of Concept Associations (pp. 409-414). IEEE. 10.1109/ IV.2008.54

Whittaker, J. (1989). Creativity and Conformity in Science: Titles, Keywords and Co-word Analysis. Social Studies of Science, 19(3), 473-496. 10.1177/030631289019003004

Polish Psychological Bulletin

The Journal of Committee for Psychological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.185
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.258

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 360 360 69
PDF Downloads 236 236 63