This paper presents a validation study of a new questionnaire of self-control as an individual trait. The questionnaire has two parallel versions, one based on self-reports (AS-36) and another one based on informant reports (AS-36-3). Each version consists of three subscales, called Inhibition (12 items), Switching (12 items), and Goal Monitoring (12 items). Eight samples of participants (N = 935 altogether) took part in the validation study. Both versions obtained satisfactory indices of internal consistency, assessed with Cronbach’s alpha and split-half coefficients. Selfcontrol assessed with this scale proved to be entirely independent of general intelligence. However, AS-36 and AS-36-3 scores tended to correlate with other self-report measures of trait self control, such as Tangney, Baumeister, and Boone’s (2004) self-control scale. We conclude that AS-36 is a valid and reliable tool, suitable for assessment of self-control in both research and diagnostic settings.
Arrington, C.M. & Logan, G.D. (2005). Voluntary task switching: Chasing the elusive homunculus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 683-702.
Ball, D., Hill, L., Freeman, B., Eley, T.C., Strelau, J., Riemann, R., Spinath, F.M., Angleitner, A., & Plomin, R. (1997). The serotonin transporter gene and peer-rated neuroticism. NeuroReport, 8, 1301-1304.
Baumeister, R.F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D.M. (1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1252-1265.
Baumeister, R.F. & Tierney, J. (2011). Willpower: Rediscovering the greatest human strength. New York. Penguin Books. Polish edition: Siła woli. Poznań: Media Rodzina.
Berman, M.G., Yourganov, G., Askren, M.K., Ayduk, O., Casey, B.J., Gotlib, I.H., Kross, E., McIntosh, A.R., Strother, S., Wilson, N.L., Zayas, V., Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Jonides, J. (2013). Dimensionality of brain networks linked to life-long individual differences in self-control. Nature Communications, 4, 1-7.
Choynowski, M. (1967). Test znajomości słów. [The Words Knowledge Test] Warszawa: Pracownia Psychometryczna PAN.
Chuderski, A. (2010). Samokontrola: własności, funkcje, mechanizmy i ograniczenia. [Self-control: properties, functions, mechanisms, and limits]. Studia z Kognitywistyki i Filozofi i Umysłu, 4, 27-51.
Chuderski, A. (2013). When are fluid intelligence and working memory isomorphic and when are they not? Intelligence, 41(4), 244-262.
Chuderski, A., Taraday, M., Nęcka, E., & Smoleń, T. (2012). Storage capacity explains fl uid intelligence but executive control does not. Intelligence, 40, 278-295.
Clark, L.A., Vittengl, J., Kraft, D., & Jarrett, R.B. (2003). Separate personality traits from states to predict depression. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 152-172.
Duckworth, A.L., & Kern, M.L. (2011). A meta-analysis of the content validity of self-control measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(3), 259-268.
Eriksen, B.A., & Eriksen, C.W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identifi cation of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143-149.
Gailliot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F., DeWall, C.N., Maner, J.K., Plant, E.A., Tice, D.M., Brewer, L.E. & Schmeichel, B.J. (2007). Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 325-336.
John, O.P., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2000). Measurement: reliability, construct validation, and scale construction. In H.T. Reis and C.M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (p. 339-369). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Krug, M.K., Carter, C.S. (2011). Anterior Cingulate Cortex contributions to cognitive and emotional processing: A general purpose mechanism for cognitive control and self-control. In R.R. Hassin, K.N. Ochsner & Y. Trope (Eds.), Self-control in society, mind, and brain (pp. 3-26). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Mischel, W. (1974). Processes in delay of gratification. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 249-292). New York: Academic Press.
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Peake, P. (1988). The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratifi cation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 687-696.
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M.L. (1989). Delay of gratifi cation in children. Science, 244, 933-938.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N.P., Emerson, M.J., Witzki, A.H., & Howerter, A. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contribution to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49-100.
Moffitt, T.E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R.J., Harrington, H., Houts, R., Poulton, R., Roberts, B.W., Ross, S., Sears, M.R., Thomson, W.M., & Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. PNAS, 108, 2693-2698.
Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R.F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 247-259.
Muraven, M., Baumeister, R.F., & Tice, D.M. (1999). Longitudinal improvement of self-regulation through practice: Building self-control through repeated exercise. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 446-457.
Norman, D.A. & Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. W: R. J. Davidson, G. E. Schwartz, & D. Shapiro (red.), Consciousness and self-regulation. Advances in research and theory (pp. 1-18). New-York: Plenum Press.
O”Driscoll, G.A., Alpert, N.M., Matthysse, S.W., Levy, D.L., Rauch, S.L., & Holzman, P. S. (1995). Functional neuroanatomy of antisaccade eye movements investigated with positron emission tomography. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 92, 925-929.
Orylska, A. & Racicka, E. (2014). Zastosowania badań okulografi cznych w diagnozowaniu ADHD u dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym i wczesnoszkolnym. [Applications of eye-tracking research in diagnosing ADHD in preschool and early school children] Studia Psychologiczne, 52(2), 5-17.
Ostaszewski, P., Bąbel, P., & Swebodziński, B. (2013). Physical and cognitive effort discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards. Japanese Psychological Research, 55, 329-337.
Rachlin, H. (2000). The science of self-control. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Raven, J.C., Court, J.H., & Raven, J. (1983). Manual for Raven’s Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales (Section 4: Advanced Progressive Matrices). London, UK: H. K. Lewis.
Sandson, J. & Albert, M.L. (1984). Varietes of perseveration. Neuropsychologia, 22, 715-732.
Słabosz, A., Lewis, S.J., Śmigasiewicz, K., Szymura, B., Barker, R.A., & Owen, A. M. (2006). The role of learned irrelevance in attentional set-shifting impairments in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology, 20, 578-588.
Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R.L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P.R., & Jacobs, G.A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Stroop, J.R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-662.
Tangney, J.P., Baumeister, R.F., & Boone, A.L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72(2), 271-322.
Vazire, S. (2006). Informant reports: A cheap, fast, and easy method for personality assessment. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 472-481.
Vazire, S. (2010). Who knows what about a person? The self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA) model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 281-300.