Health enhancing coping as a mediator in relationships of positive emotionality and cognitive curiosity with quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients

Open access

Abstract

The number of people suffering from type 2 diabetes has been growing recently. This chronic disease is connected with lower perceived quality of life and experiencing a lot of stressful situations. Some of these situations can be anticipated. Thus, it is possible to prepare oneself for future difficult situations by using proactive coping strategies. The aim of this research was to verify the level of satisfaction with various areas of life, the frequency of use of proactive coping strategies in the case of type 2 diabetes patients and healthy individuals, as well as mediation role of these strategies in the relationship between positive emotionality, cognitive curiosity and perceived quality of life. One hundred and seventy four persons took part in the research: 85 persons with diabetes and 89 healthy individuals. We used instruments with recognized psychometric properties: The Proactive Coping Inventory, The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-BREF, PANAS Questionnaire and State-Trait Personality Inventory. The analysis of the results showed, among other things, that people suffering from type 2 diabetes are the least satisfied with their health, and the most with their treatment and knowledge about the disease. Healthy individuals are the most satisfied with the physical domain and one’s present life, whereas the least satisfied with the environmental domain. Both groups differ in terms of using proactive coping strategies. People with diabetes most often adopt a preventive strategy, whereas healthy individuals a reflective one. Two strategies turned out to be able to mediate in the relationship of positive emotionality and life satisfaction in the diabetes group. It was a strictly proactive and preventive coping strategy. No mediation effect was found in the group of healthy people. The results show that in the face of anticipated difficulties, people with type 2 diabetes try to protect their current resources by resorting to their existing knowledge, the level of which they are most satisfied with. The higher the positive emotionality/cognitive curiosity among people with type 2 diabetes, the higher their satisfaction with life, which is due to the fact, that they more frequently use proactive or preventive strategies to cope with stress.

Aspinwall, L.G., & Taylor, S.E. (1997). A stitch in time: Self-regulation and proactive coping. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 417-436. doi: 1.1037/0033-2909.121.3.417

Aspinwall, L.G. (1998). Rethinking the Role of Positive Affect and Self-regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 23, 1-32. doi: 1.1023/A:1023080224401

Baron, R.M., & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator - mediator variable distinction in social psychological research. Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. doi: 1.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

Berlyne, D.E. (1954). A theory of human curiosity. British Journal of Psychology, 45(3), 180 - 191. doi: 1.1111/j.2044-8295.1954.tb01243.

Bosić-Živanović, D., Medić-Stojanoska, M., & Kovačev-Zavišić, B. (2012). Kvalitet života obolelih od dijabetesa melitusa tipa 2. Vojnosanitetski pregled, 69(10), 858-863. doi: 1.2298/VSP1210858B

Bostock, S., Hamer, M., Wawrzyniak, A.J., Mitchell, E.S., & Steptoe, A. (2011). Positive emotional style and subjective, cardiovascular and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(8), 1175-83. doi:1.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.02.009

Bradley, C., & Lewis, K.S. (1990). Measures of psychological well-being and treatment satisfaction developed from the responses of people with tablet-treated diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 7 (5), 445-451. doi: 1.1111/j.1464-5491.199.tb01421.x

Bradley, C., & Speight, J. (2002). Patient perceptions of diabetes and diabetes therapy: Assessing quality of life. Diabetes - Metabolism Research and Reviews 3, 64-69. doi: 1.1002/dmrr.279

Burroughs T.E., Desikan, R., Waterman, B.M, Gilin, D, & McGill, J. (2004). Development and validation of the Diabetes Quality of Life Brief Clinical Inventory. Diabetes Spectrum, 17(1), 41-49.

Brzozowski, P. (2010). SUPIN - Skala uczuć pozytywnych i negatywnych. Polska adaptacja skali PANAS Davida Watsona i Lee Anny Clark [The Polish version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS by David Watson and Lee Anne Clark]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.

Coelho, R., Amorim, I., & Prata, J. (2003). Coping styles and quality of life in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Psychosomatics, 44, 312-318. doi:1.1176/appi.psy.44.4.312

Collins, M.M., Bradley, C.P., O’Sullivan, T., & Ivan J. Perry. (2009). Self-care coping strategies in people with diabetes: a qualitative exploratory study. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 9, 6. doi:1.1186/1472-6823-9-6

Costa, P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1980). Infl uence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: Happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 668-678. doi:1.1037/0022-3514.38.4.668

Dąbrowska, A., Jurkowska, B., Nowicki, G., Prystupa, A., Bednarski, J., & Pietryka-Michałowska, E. (2012). Ocena wybranych elementów psychicznej jakości życia pacjentów leczonych z powodu cukrzycy typu 2 [Assessment of chosen elements of psychological quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes]. Current Problems of Psychiatry, 13(2), 128-133.

Davidson, K.W., Mostofsky, E., & Whang, W. (2010). Don’t worry, be happy: positive affect and reduced 10-year incident coronary heart disease: the Canadian Nova Scotia Health Survey. European Heart Journal, 31(9), 1065-7. doi:1.1093/eurheartj/ehp603.

DeNeve, K.M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: a meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197-229. doi: 1.1037/0033-2909.124.2.197

Dudzińska, M., Tarach, J.S., Burroughs, T.E., Zwolak, A., Matuszek, B., Smoleń, A, & Nowakowski, A. (2013). Validation of the Polish version of Diabetes Quality of Life - Brief Clinical Inventory (DQL-BCI) among patients with type 2 diabetes. Archives of Medical Science.

Eldesouky, L. (2012). Openness to Experience and health: A Review of the Literature. The Yale Review of Undergraduate Research in Psychology.

Fredrickson, B.L. (1998). What Good Are Positive Emotions? Review of Psychology, 2, 3, 300-319. doi: 1.1037/1089-268.2.3.300

Fredrickson, B.L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 3, 218-276. doi: 1.1037/0003-66X.56.3.218

Fredrickson, B.L. (2003). The Value of Positive Emotions. American Scientist, 91, 330-335.

Fredrickson, B.L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 359, 1367−1378. doi: 1.1098/ rstb.2004.1512

Fredrickson, B.L., & Branigan, Ch. (2005). Positive Emotions Broaden the Scope of Attention and Thought-Action Repertoires. Cognition and Emoiton, 19, 3, 313-332. doi: 1.1080/ 02699930441000238

Fredrickson, B.L., Mancuso, R., A., Branigan, Ch., & Tugade, M.M. (2000). The Undoing Effect of Positive Emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 24, 4, 237-258. doi: 1.1023/A:1010796329158

Glasgow, R.E., Ruggiero, L., Eakin, E.G., Dryfoos, J., & Chobanian, L. (1997). Quality of life and associated characteristics in a large national sample of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 20(4), 562-567. doi: 1.2337/diacare.2.4.562

Greenglass, E. (2002). Proactive coping. In E. Frydenberg (Eds.) Beyond coping: Meeting goals, vision, and challenges (37-62). London: Oxford University Press.

Greenglass, E., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2009). Proactive Coping, Positive Affect, and Well-Being. Testing for Mediation Using Path Analysis. European Psychologist, 14(1), 29-39. doi: 1.1027/1016-904.14.1.29

Greenglass, E., Schwarzer, R., Jakubiec, S.D., Fiksenbaum, L., & Taubert, S. (1999). The Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI): A multidimensional research instrument. Paper presented at the 20th International Conference of the STAR (Stress and Anxiety Research Society) Cracow, Poland, July 12-14, 1999.

Hambrick, E.P., & McCord, D.M. (2010). Proactive coping and its relation to the Five-Factors Model of Personality. Indywividual Differences Research, 8, 2, 67-77.

Heszen, I. (2013). Psychologia stresu. Korzystne i niekorzystne skutki stresu życiowego [Psychology of stress. Positive and negative effects of stress]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Heszen, I., & Sęk, H. (2008). Psychologia zdrowia [Health psychology]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Isen A.I. (2005). Rola neuropsychologii w zrozumieniu korzystnego wpływu afektu pozytywnego na zachowania społeczne i procesy poznawcze [A role for neuropsychology in understanding the facilitating infl uence of positive affect on social behaviour and cognitive processes], In Psychologia pozytywna [Positive Psychology], (284-302) (Eds.) J. Czapiński, Warszawa, 2005.

Isen, A.M. (2004). Some perspectives on positive feelings and emotions: Positive affect facilitates thinking and problem solving. In A.S.R. Manstead, N. Frijda, A. Fischer (Eds.), Feelings and emotions: The Amsterdam symposium (263-281). Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Kaczmarek, Ł., Sęk, H., & Ziarko, M. (2011). Sprężystość psychiczna i zmienne pośredniczące w jej wpływie na zdrowie [Ego Resiliency and the mediators of its effect on health]. Przegląd Psychologiczny [Polish Psychological Bulletin], 54, 29-46.

Kalka, D. (2014). The quality of life, symptoms of depression and coping with stress among individuals with type 2 diabetes - preliminary study. Przegląd Psychologiczny [Polish Psychological Bulletin], 48(5), 931-94.

Kjell, O.N.E., Nima, A.A., Sikstrom, S., Archer, T., & Garcia, D. (2013). Iranian and Swedish adolescents: differences in personality traits and well-being. Peer Journal, 1:e197. doi: 1.7717/peerj.197

Koligat, D., Leszczyński, P., Pawlak-Buś, K., Koligat, A., Zaprutko, T., Kus, K. at al. (2012). Wpływ chorób przewlekłych (osteoporozy i cukrzycy) na Health Related Quality-of-Life - badanie pilotażowe [Impact of chronic diseases (osteoporosis and diabetes) on Health Related Quality-of-Life: a pilot study]. Nowiny Lekarskie [Medical News], 81(2), 122-128.

Krans, H.M.J., Porta, M., & Keen, H. (1992). Diabetes care and research in Europe: The St Vincent Declaration Action Programme. World Health Organisation, Copenhagen, 29-32.

Litman, J. A. (2008). Interest and deprivation factors of epistemic curiosity. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1585-1595. doi: 1.1016/j.paid.2008.01.014

Mikolajczak, M., Quoidbach, J., Vanootighem, V., Lambert, F., Lahaye, M., Fillee, C., & de Timary, P. (2010). Cortisol awakening response (CAR)’s fl exibility leads to larger and more consistent associations with psychological factors than CAR magnitude. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010; 35(5), 752-7. doi: 1.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.11.003

Moskowitz, J.T., Epel, E.S., & Acree, M. (2008). Positive affect uniquely predicts lower risk of mortality in people with diabetes. Health Psychology, 27(1 Suppl), 73-82. doi: 1.1037/0278-6133.27.1.S73

Naik, A.D., White, C.D., Robertson, S.M., Armento, M.A.E., Lawrence, B., Stelljes, L.A., & Cully, J.A. (2012). Behavioral health coaching for rural-living older adults with diabetes and depression: an open pilot of the HOPE Study. BMC Geriatrics, 12:37. doi:1.1186/1471-2318-12-37

Nicolucci, A., Kovacs Burns K, Holt R.I.G., Comaschi, M., Hermanns, N., Ishii, H., Kokoszka, A., Pouwer, F., Skovlund, S.E., Stuckey, H., Tarkun, I., Vallis, M., Wene, M., Peyrot, M. (2013). Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2TM): Cross-national benchmarking of diabetes-related psychosocial outcomes for people with diabetes. Diabetetic Medicine, 30, 767-777. doi:1.1111/ dme.12245

Novo Nordisk, (2014). Cukrzyca. Ukryta pandemia. Sytuacja w Polsce [Diabetes: The hidden pandemic and its impact on Poland]. Warszawa: Novo Nordisk.

Papanas, N., Tsapas, A., Papatheodorou, K., Papatheodorou K., Bekiari, E., Sariganni, M., Paletas, K., & Maltezos, E. (2010). Glycaemic control is correlated with well-being index (WHO-5) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, 118(6), 364-7. doi: 1.1055/s-0029-1243623

Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 603-619. doi:1.1521/jscp.23.5.603.50748

Pasikowski, T., Sęk, H., Greenglass, E.R., & Taubert, S. (2002). The Proactive Coping Inventory-Polish Adaptation. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 33, 41-46.

Peterson, C., Ruch, W., Beermann, U., Park, N., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2007). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 149-156. doi: 1.1080/17439760701228938

Pietrzykowska, E., Zozulińska, D., & Wierusz-Wysocka, B. (2007). Jakość życia chorych na cukrzycę [The quality of life of diabetic patients]. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski [Polish Medical Journal], 23(136), 311-314.

Plotnikoff, R.C., Trinh, L., Courneya, K.S., Karunamuni, N., & Sigal, R.J. (2011). Predictors of physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35(3), 359-7. doi: 1.1348/135910709X478826

Poprawa, R. (2009). Proaktywność jako zasób trzeźwego życia [Proactive coping as a resource of sober life]. Polskie Forum Psychologiczne [Polish Psychological Forum], 14, 1, 46-62.

Pufal, J., Gierach, M., Pufal, M., Bronisz, A., Kiełbasa, L., & Junik, R. (2004). Wpływ czynników społeczno-demografi cznych i klinicznych na jakość życia chorych na cukrzycę typu 2 [The infl uence of sociodemographic and clinical factors on quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes]. Diabetologia Doświadczalna i Kliniczna [Experimental and Clinical Diabetology], 4(2), 137-143.

Redekop, W.K., Koopmanschap, M.A., Stolk, R.P., Rutten, G., Wolffenbuttel, B., & Niessen, L.W. (2002). Health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction in Dutch patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25, 458-463. doi: 1.2337/diacare.25.3.458

Richman, L.S., Kubzansky, L., Maselko, J., Kawachi, I., Choo, P., & Bauer, M., (2005). Positive Emotion and Health: Going Beyond the Negative. Health Psychology, 24(4), 422-429. doi: 1.1037/0278-6133.24.4.422

Rubin, R.R., & Peyrot, M. (1999). Quality of life and diabetes. Diabetes/ Metabolism Research and Reviews, 15(3), 205-218. 1.1002/ (SICI)1520-7560(199905/06

Schipper, H. (1990). Quality of life: principles of the clinical paradigm. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 8(23), 171-185. doi.org/1.1300/ J077v08n02_09

Schwarzer, R. (2001). Stress, resources and proactive coping. Applied Psychology. An international review, 50, 400-407.

Schwarzer, R., & Knoll, N. (2003). Positive coping: Mastering demands and searching for meaning. In. S.J. Lopes, C.R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures, 393-409. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 1.1037/10612-025

Schwarzer, R., & Taubert, S. (2002). Tenacious goal pursuits and striving toward personal growth: proactive coping. In E. Frydenberg. (Eds.) Beyond coping: Meeting goals, vision, and challenges, 19-35. London: Oxford University Press.

Sęk, H. (2008). Udział pozytywnych emocji w osiąganiu zdrowia [Positive emotions in attaining health]. In I. Heszen, J. Życińska (Eds) Psychologia zdrowia. W poszukiwaniu pozytywnych inspiracji [Health psychology: In the search for positive inspirations]. Warszawa: Academica Wydawnictwo SWPS.

Sęk, H., & Pasikowski, T. (2003). Proaktywne radzenie sobie ze stresem życiowym i subiektywne wskaźniki zdrowia [Proactive Coping and Subjective Health Indicators]. Studia Psychologiczne [Psychological Studies], 41(4), 105-126.

Shimai, S., Otake, K., Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2006). Convergence of character strengths in American and Japanese young adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 311-322. doi. org/1.1007/s10902-005-3647-7

Silink, M. (2007). UN Resolution 61/225: a gift to the diabetes world. Practical Diabetes International, 24(8), 387-388. 1.1002/pdi.1152

Spielberger, C.D., & Reheiser, E.C. (2009). Assessment of Emotions: Anxiety, Anger, Depression, and Curiosity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1(3), 271-302. doi: 1.1111/j.1758-0854.2009.01017.x Spielberger, C.D., & Starr, L.M. (1994). Curiosity and exploratory behavior. In H.F. O’Neil, Jr., & M. Drillings (Eds.), Motivation: Theory and research, 221-243. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Tatoń, J., Czech, A., & Bernas, M. (2008). Diabetologia kliniczna [Clinical Diabetology]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL.

Thoolen, B.J., deRidder, D., Bensing, J., Gorter, K., & Rutten, G. (2009). Beyond good intentions: The role of proactive coping in achieving sustained behavioural change in the context of diabetes management. Psychology and Health, 24(3), 237-254. doi: 1.1080/08870440701864504

Trzebińska, E. (2008). Psychologia pozytywna [Positive Psychology]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne.

Tsenkova, V.K., Love., G.D, Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2007). Socioeconomic status and psychological well-being predict cross-time change in glycosylated hemoglobin in older women without diabetes. Psychosomomatic Medicine, 69(8), 777-84.

Tsenkova, V.K., Love, G.D., Singer, B.H., & Ryff, C.D. (2008). Coping and positive affect predict longitudinal change in glycosylated hemoglobin. Health Psychology, 27(Suppl), 163-171. doi: 1.1037/0278-6133.27.2

Uskul, A.K., & Greenglass, E.R. (2005). Psychological well-being in a Turkish-Canadian sample. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 18, 269-278. doi: 1.1080/10615800500205983

Walker, A.E. (2001). Multiple chronic diseases and quality of life: patterns emerging from a large national sample, Australia. Chronic Illness, 3(3), 202-218. doi.1.1177/1742395307081504

Watson, D. (2004). Stability versus change, dependability versus error: Issues in the assessment of personality over time. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 319-35. doi: 1.1016/j.jrp.2004.03.001

Wołowicka, L., & Jaracz, K. (2001). Polska wersja WHOQOL 100 i WHO- QOL Bref [The Polish version of WHOQOL 100 and WHO-QOL Bref]. In L. Wołowicka (red.). Jakoś ć ż ycia w naukach medycznych [Quality of life in medical science] (231-238). Poznań: Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Akademii Medycznej.

World Health Organization (1993). Report of WHOQOL Focus Group Work. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization, (2011). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 201. Geneva: WHO.

Wrześniewski, K. (1991). Trójczynnikowy inwentarz stanów i cech osobowości [State-Trait Personality Inventory]. Przegląd Lekarski [Medical Review], 48(2), 222-225.

Polish Psychological Bulletin

The Journal of Committee for Psychological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.185
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.258

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 177 177 53
PDF Downloads 49 49 9