Identity status and emotion regulation in adolescence and early adulthood

Open access


The article presents the results of a study investigating the links between emotion regulation and identity. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the two variables. On the basis of neo-eriksonian theories, an attempt to specify the role of emotion regulation in the process of identity formation was made. The study involved 849 people (544 women, 304 men) aged 14-25. The participants attended six types of schools: lower secondary school, basic vocational school, technical upper secondary school, general upper secondary school, post-secondary school, and university. The research was conducted with the use of two questionnaires: Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and Dimensions of Identity Development Scale (DIDS). The analysis of the results points to a partial confirmation of the assumed hypotheses about the differences between people with different identity statuses in respect of the six investigated dimensions of emotion regulation. Also, the hypotheses about the links between the dimensions of emotion regulation and dimensions of identity in the subgroups with different identity statuses were partially confirmed.

Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. ClinicalPsychology Review, 30, 217 - 23. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004

Arnet, J. J. (2000). A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55 (5), 469 - 480. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.469

Bloch, L., Moran, E. K., Kring, A. M. (2010). On the need for conceptual and definitional clarity inemotion regulation research on psychopathology. In A. M. Kring, D. M. Sloan (eds.), Emotionregulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach toeitiology and treatment. (pp. 88-107). New York: Guildford Press.

Brzezińska, A. I.,Czub, T., Hejmanowski, Sz., Rękosiewicz, M.,Kaczan, R., Piotrowski, K.(2012). Determinants of identity formation during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Culture and Education, 5 (91), 5-27.

Brzezińska, A. I., Piotrowski, K. (2010). Polska adaptacja Skali Wymiarów Rozwoju Tożsamości (DIDS). Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 15 (1), 66-84.

Campbell-Sillsa, L., Barlow, D. H., Brown, T. A., Hofmann, S. G. (2006). Effects of suppression and acceptance on emotional responses of individuals with anxiety and mood disorders. Behaviour Researchand Therapy, 44, 1251-1263. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.10.001

Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., Dennis, T. A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75 (2), 317 - 333.

Cooper, M. L., Frone, M. R., Russell, M., Mudar, P. (1995). Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: a motivational model of alcohol use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 990 - 1005.

Cote, S., Morgan, L. M. (2002). A longitudinal analysis of the association between emotion regulation, job satisfaction, and intentions to quit. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 947 - 962. doi: 10.1002/ job.174

Czub, T. (2012). Opis kwestionariusza trudności w regulacji emocji- DERS/PL. Poznań: Institute of Psychology, Adama Mickiewicz University at Poznań (unpublished manuscript; in Polish)

Eisenberg, N., Sadovsky, A., Spinrad T. L. (2005). Associations of emotion-related regulation with language skills, emotion knowledge, and academic outcomes. New Directions for Child and AdolescentDevelopment,109, 109 - 118.

Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W. W. Norton Company.

Gratz, K. L., Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26 (1), 41-54.

Graziano, P. A., Reavis, R. D., Keane, S. P., Calkins, S. D. (2007). The role of emotion regulation and children’s early academic success. Journalof School Psychology, 45 (1), 3 - 19. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2006.09.002

Gross J. J., John O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85 (2), 348-362. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348

Gross J. J., Thompson R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: conceptual foundations. In Gross J. J.(eds.), Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: The Guilford Press.

Gross J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2 (5), 271-299. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271

Gross J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281-291. doi: 10.1017. S0048577201393198

Gyurak, A., Gross, J. J., Etkin, A. (2011). Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: a dual-process framework. Cognition & Emotion, 25 (3), 400 - 412. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2010.544160

Helson, R., Srivastava, S. (2001). Three paths of adult development: conservers, seekers, and achievers. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology,80 (6), 995 - 1010. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.6.995

Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Goossens, L. Beyers, W. (2006). Unpacking commitment and exploration: preliminary validation of an integrative model of late adolescent identity formation. Journal of adolescence, 29 (3), 361 - 378. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2005.03.008

Luyckx, K., Klimstra T. A., Duriez, B., Schwartz, S. J., Vanhalst, J. (2012). Identity processes and coping strategies in college students: shortterm longitudinal dynamics and the role of personality. Journal ofYouth and Adolescence, 41, 1226 - 1239. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9753-z

Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S. J., Goossens, L., Beyers, W., Soenens, B. (2008). Developmental typologies of identity formation and adjustment in female emerging adults: a latent class growth analysis approach. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18 (4), 595-619.

Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In: Lerner, R.M. and Steinberg, L. (eds.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, IndividualBases of Adolescent Development. New York: Wiley.

Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (5), 551 - 558. doi: 10.1037/h0023281

Martin, R. C., Dahlen E. R. (2005). Cognitive emotion regulation in the prediction of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger. Personalityand Individual Differences 39, 1249-1260. doi: 10.1016/j. paid.2005.06.004

Palmieri, P. A., Boden, M. T., Berenbaum, H. (2009). Measuring clarity of and attention to emotions. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91 (6), 560 - 567. doi: 10.1080/00223890903228539

Phillips, L. M., Ladouceur, C. D., Drevets, W. C. (2008). A neural model of voluntary and automatic emotion regulation: implications for understanding the pathophysiology and neurodevelopment of bipolar disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 13 (9), 829-857. doi: 10.1038/ mp.2008.65

Richards, J. M., Butler, E. A., Gross, J. J. (2003). Emotion regulation in romantic relationship: the cognitive consequences of concealing filings. Journal of Social and Personal Relationship, 20 (5), 599 -620.

Rieffe, C., De Rooij, M. (2012). The longitudinal relationship between emotion awareness and internalising symptoms during late childhood. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 349 - 356. doi: 10.1007/s00787-012-0267-8

Thompson, R. J., Mata, J., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Concurrentand prospective relations between attention to emotion and affect intensity: an experience sampling study. Emotion,11 (6), 1489 - 1494. doi: 10.1037/a0022822

Thompson, R. A., Calkins, S. D, (1996). The double-edged sword: emotion regulation in high risk children. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 163-182.

Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: a theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in ChildDevelopment, 59 (2/3), 25 - 52.

Polish Psychological Bulletin

The Journal of Committee for Psychological Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.185
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.258

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 509 468 62
PDF Downloads 263 251 51