Characterisation of large zooplankton sampled with two different gears during midwinter in Rijpfjorden, Svalbard

Open access


During a midwinter cruise north of 80°N to Rijpfjorden, Svalbard, the composition and vertical distribution of the zooplankton community were studied using two different samplers 1) a vertically hauled multiple plankton sampler (MPS; mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 200 μm) and 2) a horizontally towed Methot Isaacs Kidd trawl (MIK; mouth area 3.14 m2, mesh size 1500 μm). Our results revealed substantially higher species diversity (49 taxa) than if a single sampler (MPS: 38 taxa, MIK: 28) had been used. The youngest stage present (CIII) of Calanus spp. (including C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis) was sampled exclusively by the MPS, and the frequency of CIV copepodites in MPS was double that than in MIK samples. In contrast, catches of the CV-CVI copepodites of Calanus spp. were substantially higher in the MIK samples (3-fold and 5-fold higher for adult males and females, respectively). The MIK sampling clearly showed that the highest abundances of all three Thysanoessa spp. were in the upper layers, although there was a tendency for the larger-sized euphausiids to occur deeper. Consistent patterns for the vertical distributions of the large zooplankters (e.g. ctenophores, euphausiids) collected by the MPS and MIK samplers provided more complete data on their abundances and sizes than obtained by the single net. Possible mechanisms contributing to the observed patterns of distribution, e.g. high abundances of both Calanus spp. and their predators (ctenophores and chaetognaths) in the upper water layers during midwinter are discussed.

Antacli J.C., Hernández D. and Sabatini M.E. 2010. Estimating copepods’ abundance with paired nets: Implications of mesh size for population studies. Journal of Sea Research 63: 71–77.

Bandara K., Varpe Ø., Søreide J.E., Wallenschus J., Berge J. and Eiane K. 2016. Seasonal vertical strategies in a high-Arctic coastal zooplankton community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 555: 49–64.

Båtnes A.S., Miljeteig C., Berge J., Greenacre M. and Johnsen G. 2015. Quantifying the light sensitivity of Calanus spp. during the polar night — potential for orchestrated migrations conducted by ambient light from the sun, moon, or aurora borealis? Polar Biology 38: 51–65.

Berge J., Daase M., Renaud P.E., Ambrose Jr. W.G., Darnis G., Last K.S., Leu E., Cohen J.H., Johnsen G., Moline M.A., Cottier F., Varpe Ø., Shunatova N., Bałazy P., Morata N., Massabuau J.-C., Falk-Petersen S., Kosobokova K., Hoppe C.J.M., Węsławski J.M., Kukliński P., Legeżyńska J., Nikishina D., Cusa M., Kędra M., Włodarska-Kowalczuk M., Vogedes D., Camus L., Tran D., Michaud E., Gabrielsen T.M., Granovitch A., Gonchar A., Krapp C.R. and Callesen T.A. 2015. Unexpected Levels of Biological Activity during the Polar Night Offer New Perspectives on a Warming Arctic. Current Biology 25: 2555–2561.

Błachowiak-Samołyk K., Wiktor J., Hegseth E.N., Wold A., Falk-Petersen S. and Kubiszyn A. 2015. Winter Tales – a dark side of planktonic life. Polar Biology 38: 23–36.

Buchholz F., Buchholz C. and Węsławski J.M. 2010. Ten years after: krill as indicator of change in the macro-zooplankton communities of two Arctic fjords. Polar Biology 33: 101–113.

Clarke K.R. and Warwick R.M. 1994. Changes in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation. Natural Environment Research Council, Plymouth: 176 pp.

Choe N. and Deibel D. 2000. Seasonal vertical distribution and population dynamics of the chaetognath Parasagitta elegans in the water column and hyperbenthic zone of Conception Bay, Newfoundland. Marine Biology 137: 847–856.

Daase M., Varpe O. and Falk-Petersen S. 2014. Non-consumptive mortality in copepods: occurrence of Calanus spp. carcasses in the Arctic Ocean during winter. Journal of Plankton Research 36: 129–144.

Falkenhaug T. 1996. Distributional and seasonal patterns of ctenophores in Malangen, northern Norway. Marine Ecology Progress Series 140: 59–70.

Falk-Petersen S., Leu E., Berge J., Nygård H., Røstad A., Keskinen E., Thormar J., Quillfeldt C., Wold A. and Gulliksen B. 2008. Vertical migration in high Arctic waters during autumn 2004. Deep-Sea Research II 55: 2275–2284.

Folt C.L. and Burns C.W. 1999. Biological drivers of zooplankton patchiness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: 300–305.

Gabrielsen T., Merkel B., Søreide J., Johansson-Karlsson E., Bailey A., Vogedes D., Nygård H., Varpe Ø. and Berge J. 2012. Potential misidentifications of two climate indicator species of the marine arctic ecosystem: Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus. Polar Biology 35: 1621–1628.

Gallienne C.P. and Robins D.B. 2001. Is Oithona the most important copepod in the world’s oceans? Journal of Plankton Research 23: 1421–1432.

Gannefors Ch., Boer M., Kattner G., Graeve M., Eiane K., Gulliksen B., Hop H. and Falk-Petersen S. 2005. The Arctic sea butterfly Limacina helicina: lipids and life strategy. Marine Biology 147: 169–177.

Grenvald J.C., Callesen T.A., Daase M., Hobbs L., Darnis G., Renaud P.E., Cottier F., Torkel G.N. and Berge J. 2016. Plankton community composition and vertical migration during polar night in Kongsfjorden. Polar Biology 39: 1879–1895.

Grigor J.J., Søreide J.E. and Varpe Ø. 2014. Seasonal ecology and life history strategy of the high-latitude predatory zooplankter Parasagitta elegans. Marine Ecology Progress Series 499: 77–88.

Hagen W. 1999. Reproductive strategies and energetic adaptations of polar zooplankton. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 36: 25–34.

Harris R., Wiebe P., Lenz J., Skjoldal H.R. and Huntley M. (eds) 2000. ICES zooplankton methodology manual. Academic Press, London: 684 pp.

Hirche H.-J., Laudien J., Buchholz F. 2016. Near-bottom zooplankton aggregations in Kongsfjorden: implications for pelago–benthic coupling. Polar Biology 39: 1897–1912.

Hopcroft R.R., Clarke C., Nelson R.J. and Raskoff K.A. 2005. Zooplankton communities of the Arctic’s Canada Basin: the contribution by smaller taxa. Polar Biology 28: 198–206.

ICES 2013. Manual for the Midwater Ring Net sampling during IBTS Q1. Series of International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Survey Protocols SISP 2-MIK 2, Copenhagen: 18 pp.

Iguchi N. and Ikeda T. 2004. Vertical distribution, population structure and life history of Thysanoessa longipes (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) around Yamato Rise, central Japan Sea. Journal of Plankton Research 26: 1015–1023.

Johnson D.L. and Fogarty M.J. 2013. Intercalibration of MOCNESS and Bongo nets: Assessing relative efficiency for ichthyoplankton. Progress in Oceanography 108: 43–71.

Kwasniewski S., Hop H., Falk-Petersen S. and Pedersen G. 2003. Distribution of Calanus species in Kongsfjorden, a glacial fjord in Svalbard. Journal of Plankton Research 25: 1–20.

Lischka S. and Hagen W. 2016. Seasonal dynamics of mesozooplankton in the Arctic Kongsfjord (Svalbard) during year-round observations from August 1998 to July 1999. Polar Biology, 39: 1859–1878.

Lough R.G. and Broughton E.A. 2007. Development of micro-scale frequency distributions of plankton for inclusion in foraging models of larval fish, results from a Video Plankton Recorder. Journal of Plankton Research 29: 7–17.

Nichols J.H. and Thompson A.B. 1991. Mesh selection of copepodite and nauplius stages of four calanoid copepod species. Journal of Plankton Research 13: 661–671.

Pearcy W.G., Greenlaw C.F. and Pommeranz T. 1983. Assessment of euphausiids with five nets and a 120-kHz echosounder in fjords of northern Norway. Biological Oceanography 2: 151–177.

Richter C. 1995. Seasonal changes in the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the Greenland Sea Gyre (75°N): distribution strategies of calanoid copepods. ICES Journal of Marine Science 52: 533–539.

Sameoto D., Wiebe P., Runge J., Postel L., Dunn J., Miller C. and Coombs S. 2000. Collecting zooplankton. In: R.P. Harris, P.H. Wiebe, J. Lenz, H.R. Skjoldal, M. Huntley (eds) ICES zooplankton methodology manual. Elsevier, Academic Press: 53–81.

Søreide J.E., Hop H., Falk-Petersen S., Gulliksen B. and Hansen E. 2003. Macrozooplankton communities and environmental variables in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone in late winter and spring. Marine Ecology Progress Series 263: 43–64.

Swanberg N. and Båmstedt U. 1991. Ctenophora in the Arctic: the abundance, distribution and predatory impact of the cydippid ctenophore Mertensia ovum in the Barents Sea. Polar Research 10: 507–524.

Tande K.S. 1991. Calanus in North Norwegian fjords and in the Barents Sea. Polar Research 10: 389–407.

Trudnowska E., Głuchowska M., Beszczynska-Möller A., Błachowiak-Samołyk K. and Kwaśniewski S. 2016. Plankton patchiness in the Polar Front region of the West Spitsbergen Shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series 560: 1–18.

Vannucci M. 1968. Loss of organisms through the meshes. In: D.J. Tranter (ed.): Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology 2: Zooplankton Sampling. UNESCO, Paris: 77–86.

Vinogradov M.E. 1997. Some problems of vertical distribution of meso- and macroplankton in the Ocean. In: J.H.S. Blaxter, A.J. Southward, A.V. Gebruk, E.C. Southward and P.A. Tyler (eds) Advances in Marine Biology. Academic Press, San Diego London Boston New York Sydney Tokyo Toronto: 1–92.

Webster C.N., Varpe Ø., Falk-Petersen S., Berge J., Stübner E. and Brierley A.S. 2015. Moonlit swimming: vertical distributions of macrozooplankton and nekton during the polar night. Polar Biology 38: 75–85.

Weydmann A., Søreide J.E., Kwasniewski S., Leu E., Falk-Petersen S. and Berge J. 2013. Ice-related seasonality in zooplankton community composition in a high Arctic fjord. Journal of Plankton Research 35: 831–842.

Wiebe P.H., Skjoldal H.R., Postel L., Allison M.D., Groman R.C. and Knutsen T. 2002. ICES/GLOBEC Sea-Going Zooplankton Workshop for Intercalibration of Plankton Samplers. A compilation of Data, Metadata, and Visual Material. ICES Cooperative Research Report 250: 1–22.

Wiebe P.H. and Benfield M.C. 2003. From the Hensen Net toward four-dimensional biological oceanography. Progress in Oceanography 56: 7–136.

Williams R. and Lindley J.A. 1982. Variability in abundance, vertical distribution and ontogenetic migrations of Thysanoessa longicaudata (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean. Marine Biology 69: 321–330.

Wold A., Darnis G., Søreide J.E., Leu E., Philippe B., Fortier L., Poulin M., Kattner G., Graeve M. and Falk-Petersen S. 2011. Life strategy and diet of Calanus glacialis during the winter-spring transition in Amundsen Gulf, southeast Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean). Polar Biology 34: 1929–1946.

Zhukova N.G., Nesterova V.N., Prokopchuk I.P. and Rudneva G.B. 2009. Winter distribution of euphausiids (Euphausiacea) in the Barents Sea (2000–2005). Deep Sea Research II 56: 1959–1967.

Polish Polar Research

The Journal of Committee on Polar Research of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.636
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2016: 1.20

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.556
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.645


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 96 96 27
PDF Downloads 23 23 10