Snow distribution patterns on Svalbard glaciers derived from radio-echo soundings

Open access

Snow distribution patterns on Svalbard glaciers derived from radio-echo soundings

The spatial distribution of snow thickness on glaciers is driven by a set of climatological, meteorological, topographical and orographic conditions. This work presents results of snow accumulation studies carried out from 2006 to 2009 on glaciers of different types: valley glacier, ice plateau and ice cap. In order to determine snow depth, a shallow radio echo-sounding method was used. Based on the results, the following snow distribution patterns on Svalbard glaciers have been distinguished: precipitation pattern, precipitation-redistribution pattern, redistribution pattern and complex pattern. The precipitation pattern assumes that the snow distribution on glaciers follows the altitudinal gradient. If the accumulation gradient is significantly modified by local factors like wind erosion and redeposition, or local variability of precipitation, the accumulation pattern turns into the precipitation-redistribution pattern. In the redistribution pattern, local factors play a crucial role in the spatial variability of snow depth. The complex pattern, however, demonstrates the co-existence of different snow distribution patterns on a single glacial object (glacier/icecap/ice field).

Ahlmann H.W. 1933. Scientific results of the Swedish-Norwegian Arctic Expedition in the summer of 1931. Part VIII. Geografiska Annaler 15: 161-216.

Baranowski S. 1977. The subpolar glaciers of Spitsbergen seen against the climate of this region. Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis 393: 1-157 (in Polish).

Beaudon E. and Moore J. 2009. Frost flower chemical signature in winter snow on Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard). The Cryosphere Discussions 3: 159-180.

Beine H.J., Argentini S., Maurizi A., Mastrantonio G. and Viola A. 2001. The local wind field at Ny-Ålesund and the Zeppelin mountain at Svalbard. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 78: 107-113.

Førland E.J., Hanssen-Bauer I. and Nordli P.Ø. 1997a. Climate statistics and longterm series of temperature and precipitation at Svalbard and Jan Mayen. DNMI Det Norske Meteorologiske Institutt, Report No. 21/97 KLIMA: 72 pp.

Førland E.J., Hanssen-Bauer I. and Nordli P.Ø. 1997b. Orographic precipitation at the glacier Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard. DNMI Det Norske Meteorologiske Institutt, Report No. 02/97 KLIMA: 45 pp.

Glen A.R. 1939. The glaciology of North East Land. Geografiska Annaler 21 (1): 1-35.

Głowacki P. and Leszkiewicz J. 1994. Physico-chemical properties of precipitation and snow cover in Spitsbergen in the winter season 1992/1993. In: XXI Polar Symposium, Warszawa: 199-205.

Grabiec M. 2005. An estimation of snow accumulation on Svalbard glaciers on the basis of standard weather-station observations. Annals of Glaciology 42: 269-276.

Grabiec M., Leszkiewicz J., Głowacki P. and Jania J. 2006. Distribution of snow accumulation on some glaciers of Svalbard. Polish Polar Research 27 (4): 309-326.

Grześ M. 1996. Preliminary results of glaciological investigations of Waldemar glacier. In: Dynamika środowiska polarnego. Streszczenia referatów i komunikatów sesji polarnej. UMCS, Lublin: 9-10 (in Polish).

Grześ M. and Sobota I. 1998. Waldemar Glacier mass balance in the 1996/1997 balance year. In: J. Repelewska-Pękalowa (ed.) IV Conference of Polish Geomorphologists. Relief, Quaternary Paleogeography and Changes of the Polar Environment. Polar Session. Spitsbergen Geographical Expeditions: 41-50.

Grześ M. and Sobota I. 1999. Winter balance of Waldemar Glacier in 1996-1998. In: Polish Polar Studies, XXVI Polar Symposium, Lublin: 87-98.

Grześ M. and Sobota I. 2000. Winter snow accumulation and discharge of the Waldemar Glacier, northwestern Spitsbergen in 1996-1998. Polish Polar Research 21(1): 19-32.

Gus'kov A.S. 1983. Water-ice balance of glaciers of Spitsbergen in the 1977/78 balance year. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskih Issledovaniy 40: 182-185 (in Russian).

Gus'kov A.S. and Troickij L.S. 1984. Water-ice balance of glaciers of Spitsbergen in the 1980/81 and 1981/82 balance years. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskih Issledovaniy 51: 247-250 (in Russian).

Gus'kov A.S. and Troickij L.S. 1985. Mass balance of glaciers of Spitsbergen in the 1982/83 balance year. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskih Issledovaniy 54: 211-213 (in Russian).

Gus'kov A.S. and Troickij L.S. 1987. Water-ice balance of glaciers of Spitsbergen in the 1983/84 balance year. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskih Issledovaniy 59: 138-139 (in Russian).

Hagen J.O. and Lefauconnier B. 1995. Reconstructed runoff from the High Arctic Basin Bayelva based on mass-balance measurements. Nordic Hydrology 26: 285-296.

Hagen J.O. and Liestøl O. 1990. Long-term mass-balance investigations in Svalbard 1950-88. Annals of Glaciology 14: 102-106.

Hagen J. O., Liestøl O., Roland E. and Jørgensen T. 1993. Glacier Atlas of Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norsk Polarinstitut. Meddelelser nr. 129, Oslo: 141 pp.

Hanssen-Bauer I., Solås M.K. and Steffensen E.L. 1990. The Climate of Spitsbergen. DNMI Det Norske Meteorologiske Institutt, Report No. 39/90 KLIMA: 40 pp.

Hodgkins R., Cooper R., Wadham J. and Tranter M. 2005. Interannual variability in the spatial distribution of winter accumulation at a high-Arctic glacier (Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard), and its relationship with topography. Annals of Glaciology 42: 243-248.

Jaedicke C. and Gauer P. 2005. The influence of drifting snow on the location of glacier on western Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Annals of Glaciology 42: 237-242.

Jania J. 1994. Field investigations during glaciological expeditions to Spitsbergen in the period 1992-1994 (interim report). Uniwersytet Śląski, Katowice: 40 pp.

Jania J. and Pulina M. 1990. Field investigations performed during the glaciological Spitsbergen expedition in 1989, Interim Report. Uniwersytet Śląski, Katowice: 13 pp.

Koryakin V.S., Krenke A.N. and Tareeva A.M. 1985. Calculated accumulation at equilibrium line altitude. In: B.M. Kotljakov (ed.) Glaciologia Shpicbergena. Nauka, Moskva: 54-61 (in Russian).

Liston G.E. and Sturm M. 1998. A snow transport model for complex terrain. Journal of Glaciology 44 (148): 498-516.

Łupikasza E. 2003. Variability in the occurrence of rain and snow at Hornsund over the period July 1978 - December 2002. Problemy Klimatologii Polarnej 13: 93-106 (in Polish).

Łupikasza E. 2007. Atmospheric precipitation. In: A.A. Marsz and A. Styszyńska (eds) Klimat rejonu Polskiej Stacji Polarnej w Hornsundzie. Wydawnictwo Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni: 185-196 (in Polish).

Markin V.A. 1975. The climate of the modern glaciation area. In: L.S. Troickij, E.M. Zinger, W.S. Koriakin, W.A. Markin and W.I. Mihalev (eds) Oledinienie Shpicbergena (Svalbarda). Nauka, Moskva: 42-105 (in Russian).

Melvold K. 2008. Snow measurements using GPR: example from Amundsenisen, Svalbard. In: C. Hauck and C. Kneisel (eds) Applied Geophysics in Periglacial Environments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 207-216.

Migała K., Pereyma J. and Sobik M. 1988. Snow accumulation in South Spitsbergen. In: J. Jania and M. Pulina (eds) Wyprawy Polarne Uniwersytetu Śląskiego 1980-1984. T. 2. Uniwersytet Śląski, Katowice: 48-63 (in Polish).

Mikhaliov V.S. and Singer E.M. 1975. Feeding of glaciers. In: L.S. Troickij, E.M. Zinger, W.S. Koriakin, W.A. Markin and W.I. Mihalev (eds) Oledinienie Szpicbergena (Svalbarda). Nauka, Moskwa: 106-152 (in Russian).

Moorman B.J., Robinson S.D. and Brugess M.M. 2003. Imaging periglacial conditions with ground-penetrating radar. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 14: 319-329.

Möller M., Möller R, Beaudon E., Mattila O.-P., Finkelnburg R., Braun M, Grabiec M., Jonsell U., Luks B, Puczko D., Scherer D. and Schneider Ch. 2011. Snowpack characteristics of Vestfonna and De Geerfonna (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard) - a spatiotemporal analysis based on multiyear snow-pit data. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography 93: 273-285.

Neal A. 2004. Ground-penetrating radar and its use in sedimentology: principles, problems and progress. Earth-Science Reviews 66: 261-330.

Pereyma J. 1981. A snow cover in the region of Fiord Hornsund on Spitsbergen. In: VII Sympozjum Polarne. Materiały 1. Referaty i Komunikaty. Sosnowiec: 7-20 (in Polish).

Piasecki J. 1988. Accumulation and ablation on the Scott Glacier and Renard Glacier in 1987 (South Bellsund, Spitsbergen). In: XV Sympozjum Polarne. Stan obecny i wybrane problemy polskich badań polarnych. Wrocław 19-21.V.1988: 242-253 (in Polish).

Pulina M. 1991. Stratification and physico-chemical properties of snow in Spitsbergen in the hydro-glaciological year 1989/1990. In: Wyprawy Geograficzne na Spitsbergen. UMCS, Lublin: 191-213.

Sand K., Winther J.-G., Marechal D., Bruland O. and Melvold K. 2003. Regional variations of snow accumulation on Spitsbergen, Svalbard in 1997-99. Nordic Hydrology 34 (1-2): 17-32.

Schytt V. 1964: Scientific results of the Swedish glaciological expedition to Nordaustlandet, Spitsbergen 1957 and 1958. Geografiska Annaler 46: 243-281.

Sobota I. 2002. Mass balance of Waldemar Glacier in period 1996-2001. In: Streszczenia XXVIII Polar Symposium, Poznań: 84-86 (in Polish).

Sobota I. 2005. The structure of mass balance of Kaffiøyra glaciers in the light of Svalbard glaciers. In: Zarys środowiska geograficznego Kaffiøyry (NW Spitsbergen): 43-60 (in Polish).

Sobota I. 2007a. Mass balance monitoring of Kaffiøyra glaciers, Svalbard. In: The Dynamic and Mass Budget of Arctic Glaciers. Extended abstracts, Workshop and GLACIODYN (IPY) Meeting, IASC Working Group on Arctic Glaciology, Utrecht University: 108-111.

Sobota I. 2007b. Mass balance of Kaffiøyra glaciers, Svalbard. Landform Analysis 5: 75-78.

Sobota I. and Grześ M. 2006. Characteristic of snow cover on Kaffioyra's glaciers, NW Spitsbergen in 2005. Problemy Klimatologii Polarnej 16: 147-159 (in Polish).

Solovyanova I.Y. and Mavlyudov B. 2007. Mass balance observations on some glaciers in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 balance years, Nordenskiold Land, Spitsbergen. In: The Dynamic and Mass Budget of Arctic Glaciers. Extended abstracts, Workshop and GLACIODYN (IPY) Meeting, IASC Working Group on Arctic Glaciology, Utrecht University: 115-120.

Styszyńska A. 2007. The wind. In: A.A Marsz and A Styszyńska (eds) Klimat rejonu Polskiej Stacji Polarnej w Hornsundzie. Wydawnictwo Akademii MorskiejwGdyni: 71-87 (in Polish).

Taurisano A., Schuler T.V., Hagen J.-O., Eiken T., Loe E., Melvold K. and Kohler J. 2007. The distribution of snow accumulation across the Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard: direct measurements and modelling. Polar Research 26: 7-13.

Troickij L.S. 1991. Mass balance of glaciers of Spitsbergen in the 1988/89 and 1989/1990 balance years. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskih Issledovaniy 72: 167-169 (in Russian).

Troickij L.S. 1996. Mass balance of glaciers of Spitsbergen in the 1990/1991 balance year. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskih Issledovaniy 80: 135-137 (in Russian).

Tveit J. and Killingtveit Å. 1994. Snow surveys for studies of water budget on Svalbard. In: Proceedings 10th International Northern Research Basins Symposium and Workshop. Spitsbergen, Norway, SINTEF Report STF 22 A96415: 489-509.

Walter T.W., Mc Cool D.K., King L.G., Molnau M. and Campbell G.S. 2004. Simple Snowdrift Model for Distributed Hydrological Modeling. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 9: (4): 280-287.

Wielbińska D. and Skrzypczak E. 1988. Mean air temperatures at definite wind directions in Hornsund, Spitsbergen. Polish Polar Research 9 (1): 105-119.

Winther J.-G., Bruland O., Sand K., Killingtveit Å. and Marechal D. 1998. Snow accumulation distribution on Spitsbergen, Svalbard, in 1997. Polar Research 17 (2): 155-164.

Winther J.-G., Bruland O., Sand K., Gerland S., Merechal D., Ivanov B., Głowacki P. and König M. 2003. Snow research in Svalbard - an overview. Polar Research 22: 125-144.

Zagórski P. 2005. NW part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land (Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway). In: K. Pękala and H.F. Aas (eds) Orthophotomap 1:25000. Lublin.

Zagórski P., Siwek K. and Gluza A. 2008. Change of extent of front and geometry of the Renard Glacier (Spitsbergen) in the background of climatic fluctuation in 20th century. Problemy Klimatologii Polarnej 18: 113-125 (in Polish).

Zagrodnov V.S. and Samojlov O.J. 1982. Internal structure of Spitsbergen glaciers. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskih Issledovaniy 44: 58-64 (in Russian).

Polish Polar Research

The Journal of Committee on Polar Research of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.636
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.121

CiteScore 2016: 1.20

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.556
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.645

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 153 117 13
PDF Downloads 76 69 7