IPV, which emanates as a severe consequence of gender inequality in society, is the most pervasive form of IPV as most cases of abuse is perpetrated by intimate partners and has major health consequences for women. Women with a history of abuse are also at increased risk of reproductive health outcomes; such as high parity, inconsistent and lower levels of contraceptive use, unintended pregnancies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Despite concerted efforts by African governments, fertility levels in the region remain high. Africa is the region that has been least responsive to family planning programmes. This study investigates the associations between IPV and fertility in Uganda, using the Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey of 2011. Adult women of reproductive ages (15-49) that were included in the domestic violence module of the individual recode, were included in this study. Univariate, bivariate analysis, and unadjusted and adjusted Poisson Regression models were conducted for children ever born and the different forms of IPV (emotional, physical and sexual), as well as the socio-demographic and women’s empowerment variables. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses show a strong association between both these pervasive health problematics; and may therefore be one of the unexplained proximate determinants of persistently high fertility in countries such as Uganda. These results have important implications for understanding both the fertility transition in Uganda, but also for programmes and policies addressing unwanted pregnancies and unmet need for contraception that is driving fertility up, and IPV amongst women which we know from previous work has severe reproductive health outcomes but which we have now identified is a contributor to high fertility as well.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ainsworth M. 1996. Introduction: Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank Economic Review 10(1) pp.81-84.
Behrman J. A. 2015. Does schooling affect women’s desired fertility? Evidence from Malawi Uganda and Ethiopia. Demography 52(3) 787-809.
Blacker J. Opiyo C. Jasseh M. Sloggett A. and Ssekamatte-Ssebuliba J. 2005. Fertility in Kenya and Uganda: a comparative study of trends and determinants. Population studies 59(3) pp.355-373.
Bongaarts J. Frank O. and Lesthaeghe R. 1984. The proximate determinants of fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review pp.511-537.
Bongaarts J. 2010. The causes of educational differences in fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Vienna yearbook of population research pp.31-50.
Bongaarts J. and Casterline J. 2013. Fertility transition: is sub-Saharan Africa different?. Population and Development review 38(s1) pp.153-168.
Caldwell J.C. and Caldwell P. 1987. The cultural context of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Population and development review pp.409-437.
Caldwell J.C. and Caldwell P. 1990. High fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Scientific American 262(5) pp.118-125.
Caldwell J.C. Orubuloye I.O. and Caldwell P. 1992. Fertility decline in Africa: A new type of transition?. Population and development review pp.211-242.
Dodoo F.N.A. and Van Landewijk P. 1996. Men women and the fertility question in sub-Saharan Africa: an example from Ghana. African Studies Review 39(3) pp.29-41.
Dow T.E. 1970. Fertility and family planning in Africa. The Journal of Modern African Studies 8(3) pp.445-457.
Ezeh A.C. Mberu B.U. and Emina J.O. 2009. Stall in fertility decline in Eastern African countries: regional analysis of patterns determinants and implications. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 364(1532) pp.2991-3007.
Goliber T.J. 1985. Sub-Saharan Africa: population pressures on development. Population Bulletin 40(1) pp.1-46.
Handwerker W.P. 1991. Women’s power and fertility transition: The cases of Africa and the West Indies. Population & Environment 13(1) pp.55-78.
Ijaiya G.T. Raheem U.A. Olatinwo A.O. Ijaiya M.D.A. and Ijaiya M.A. 2009. Estimating the impact of birth control on fertility rate in sub-Saharan Africa. African journal of reproductive health 13(4).
Kalipeni E. 1995. The fertility transition in Africa. Geographical Review pp.286-300.
Kaye D.K. Mirembe F.M. Bantebya G. Johansson A. and Ekstrom A.M. 2006. Domestic violence as risk factor for unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in Mulago Hospital Kampala Uganda. Tropical Medicine & International Health 11(1) pp.90-101.
Letamo G. and Letamo H.N. 2001. The role of proximate determinants in fertility transition: A comparative study of Botswana Zambia and Zimbabwe. Southern African Journal of Demography pp.29-35.
Mbacke C. 1994. Family planning programs and fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa.Sinding 2009
Ntozi J.P. and Odwee J.O. 1995. High fertility in rural Uganda. The role of socioeconomic and biological factors.
Ntozi J.P. Nakanaabi I.M. and Lubaale Y.A. 1997. Fertility levels and trends in the face of the AIDS epidemic in Uganda. Health Transition Review pp.145-155.
Nalwadda G. Mirembe F. Byamugisha J. and Faxelid E. 2010. Persistent high fertility in Uganda: young people recount obstacles and enabling factors to use of contraceptives. BMC public health 10(1) p.530.
Odimegwu C. Bamiwuye O.S. and Adedini S.A. 2015. Gender-based violence as a new proximate determinant of fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Southern African Journal of Demography 16(1).
Potts D. and Marks S. 2001. Fertility in Southern Africa: the quiet revolution. Journal of Southern African Studies 27(2) pp.189-205.
Pallitto C. & O’Campo P. (2004). The relationship between Domestic Violence and unintended pregnancy: analysis of a national sample from Colombia. International Family Planning Perspectives 165-173.
Pallitto C.C. Campbell J.C. and O’Campo P. 2005. Is intimate partner violence associated with unintended pregnancy? A review of the literature. Trauma Violence & Abuse 6(3) pp.217-235.
Shapiro D. & Gebreselassie T. (2013). Fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa: falling and stalling. African Population Studies 23(1).
Sneeringer S.E. 2009. Fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative analysis of cohort trends in 30 countries.
Vavrus F. and Larsen U. 2003. Girls’ education and fertility transitions: an analysis of recent trends in Tanzania and Uganda. Economic development and cultural change 51(4) pp.945-975.
Wulifan J. K. Brenner S. Jahn A. & De Allegri M. (2015). A scoping review on determinants of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in low and middle income countries. BMC women’s health 16(1) 2.
Uganda Bureau of Statistcs (UBOS) and ICF. 2017. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2016: Key Indicators Report. Kampala Uganda: UBOS and Rockville Maryland USA: UBOS and ICF.
UNFPA. 1994. Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development. Paper presented at the International Conference on Population and Development Cairo Egypt.
Upadhyay U. D. Gipson J. D. Withers M. Lewis S. Ciaraldi E. J. Fraser A. ... & Prata N. (2014). Women’s empowerment and fertility: a review of the literature. Social Science & Medicine 115 111-120.