Abstract

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) computes routes between the organizational networks that make up today’s Internet. Unfortunately, BGP suffers from deficiencies, including slow convergence, security problems, a lack of innovation, and the leakage of sensitive information about domains’ routing preferences. To overcome some of these problems, we revisit the idea of centralizing and using secure multi-party computation (MPC) for interdomain routing which was proposed by Gupta et al. (ACM HotNets’12). We implement two algorithms for interdomain routing with state-of-the-art MPC protocols. On an empirically derived dataset that approximates the topology of today’s Internet (55 809 nodes), our protocols take as little as 6 s of topology-independent precomputation and only 3 s of online time. We show, moreover, that when our MPC approach is applied at country/region-level scale, runtimes can be as low as 0.17 s online time and 0.20 s pre-computation time. Our results motivate the MPC approach for interdomain routing and furthermore demonstrate that current MPC techniques are capable of efficiently tackling real-world problems at a large scale.

[1] S. Machiraju and R. H. Katz. Leveraging BGP dynamics to reverse-engineer routing policies. Technical Report UCB/EECS-2006-61, EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, May 2006.

[2] V. Giotsas and S. Zhou. Inferring AS relationships from BGP attributes. CoRR, abs/1106.2417, 2011.

[3] D. Gupta, A. Segal, A. Panda, G. Segev, M. Schapira, J. Feigenbaum, J. Rexford, and S. Shenker. A new approach to interdomain routing based on secure multi-party computation. In Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets’12), pages 37–42. ACM, 2012.

[4] P. Gill, M. Schapira, and S. Goldberg. Let the market drive deployment: a strategy for transitioning to BGP security. In SIGCOMM’11, pages 14–25. ACM, 2011.

[5] O. Goldreich, S. Micali, and A. Wigderson. How to play any mental game or a completeness theorem for protocols with honest majority. In STOC’87, pages 218–229. ACM, 1987.

[6] D. Demmler, T. Schneider, and M. Zohner. ABY – a framework for efficient mixed-protocol secure two-party computation. In NDSS’15. The Internet Society, 2015. Code: https://github.com/encryptogroup/ABY.

[7] C. Labovitz, A. Ahuja, A. Bose, and F. Jahanian. Delayed internet routing convergence. SIGCOMM’00, 30(4):175–187, 2000.

[8] B. Zhang, D. Massey, and L. Zhang. Destination reachability and BGP convergence time [border gateway routing protocol]. In GLOBECOM’04, volume 3, pages 1383–1389. IEEE, 2004.

[9] R. Oliveira, B. Zhang, D. Pei, and L. Zhang. Quantifying path exploration in the internet. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 17(2):445–458, 2009.

[10] N. Kushman, S. Kandula, and D. Katabi. Can you hear me now?!: It must be BGP. SIGCOMM’07, 37(2):75–84, 2007.

[11] L. Gao and J. Rexford. Stable Internet routing without global coordination. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 9(6):681–692, 2001.

[12] A. Fabrikant, U. Syed, and J. Rexford. There’s something about MRAI: timing diversity can exponentially worsen BGP convergence. In INFOCOM’11, pages 2975–2983. IEEE, 2011.

[13] K. R. B. Butler, T. R. Farley, P. McDaniel, and J. Rexford. A survey of BGP security issues and solutions. Proceedings of the IEEE, 98(1):100–122, 2010.

[14] M. Ben-Or, S. Goldwasser, and A. Wigderson. Completeness theorems for non-cryptographic fault-tolerant distributed computation (extended abstract). In STOC’88, pages 1–10. ACM, 1988.

[15] A. Ben-Efraim, Y. Lindell, and E. Omri. Optimizing semihonest secure multiparty computation for the internet. In CCS’16, pages 578–590. ACM, 2016.

[16] W. Henecka and M. Roughan. STRIP: privacy-preserving vector-based routing. In International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP’13), pages 1–10. IEEE, 2013.

[17] J. Brickell and V. Shmatikov. Privacy-preserving graph algorithms in the semi-honest model. In ASIACRYPT’05, volume 3788 of LNCS, pages 236–252. Springer, 2005.

[18] M. Blanton, A. Steele, and M. Alisagari. Data-oblivious graph algorithms for secure computation and outsourcing. In ASIACCS’13, pages 207–218. ACM, 2013.

[19] H. Carter, B. Mood, P. Traynor, and K. Butler. Secure outsourced garbled circuit evaluation for mobile phones. In USENIX Security’13, pages 289–304. USENIX, 2013.

[20] C. Liu, X. Shaun Wang, K. Nayak, Y. Huang, and E. Shi. ObliVM: A programming framework for secure computation. In S&P’15, pages 359–376. IEEE, 2015.

[21] A. C. Yao. How to generate and exchange secrets. In FOCS’86, pages 162–167. IEEE, 1986.

[22] D. Malkhi, N. Nisan, B. Pinkas, and Y. Sella. Fairplay -secure two-party computation system. In USENIX Security’04, pages 287–302. USENIX, 2004.

[23] D. Bogdanov, S. Laur, and J. Willemson. Sharemind: A framework for fast privacy-preserving computations. In ESORICS’ 08, volume 5283 of LNCS, pages 192–206. Springer, 2008.

[24] Y. Huang, D. Evans, J. Katz, and L. Malka. Faster secure two-party computation using garbled circuits. In USENIX Security’11, pages 539–554. USENIX, 2011.

[25] S. G. Choi, K.-W. Hwang, J. Katz, T. Malkin, and D. Rubenstein. Secure multi-party computation of Boolean circuits with applications to privacy in on-line marketplaces. In CT-RSA’12, volume 7178 of LNCS, pages 416–432. Springer, 2012.

[26] P. Bogetoft, D. L. Christensen, I. Damgård, M. Geisler, T. Jakobsen, M. Krøigaard, J. D. Nielsen, J. B. Nielsen, K. Nielsen, J. Pagter, M. Schwartzbach, and T. Toft. Secure multiparty computation goes live. In FC’09, volume 5628 of LNCS, pages 325–343. Springer, 2009.

[27] D. Bogdanov, M. Jõemets, S. Siim, and M. Vaht. How the Estonian tax and customs board evaluated a tax fraud detection system based on secure multi-party computation. In FC’15, volume 8975 of LNCS, pages 227–234. Springer, 2015.

[28] Y. Ishai, J. Kilian, K. Nissim, and E. Petrank. Extending oblivious transfers efficiently. In CRYPTO’03, volume 2729 of LNCS, pages 145–161. Springer, 2003.

[29] G. Asharov, Y. Lindell, T. Schneider, and M. Zohner. More efficient oblivious transfer and extensions for faster secure computation. In CCS’13, pages 535–548. ACM, 2013.

[30] T. Griffin, F. Shepherd, and G. Wilfong. The stable paths problem and interdomain routing. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 10(2):232–243, 2002.

[31] P. Gill, M. Schapira, and S. Goldberg. Modeling on quicksand: dealing with the scarcity of ground truth in interdomain routing data. Computer Communication Review, 42(1):40–46, 2012.

[32] S. Goldberg, M. Schapira, P. Hummon, and J. Rexford. How secure are secure interdomain routing protocols. In SIGCOMM’10, pages 87–98. ACM, 2010.

[33] The CAIDA AS relationships datasets. http://www.caida.org/data/as-relationships/.

[34] GeoLite data created by MaxMind. http://dev.maxmind.com/geoip/.

[35] J. Boyar, R. Peralta, and D. Pochuev. On the multiplicative complexity of boolean functions over the basis (∧, ⊕, 1). Theoretical Computer Science, 235(1):43–57, 2000.

[36] V. Kolesnikov, A.-R. Sadeghi, and T. Schneider. Improved garbled circuit building blocks and applications to auctions and computing minima. In CANS’09, volume 5888 of LNCS, pages 1–20. Springer, 2009.

[37] V. Kolesnikov and T. Schneider. Improved garbled circuit: Free XOR gates and applications. In ICALP’08, volume 5126 of LNCS, pages 486–498. Springer, 2008.

[38] T. Schneider and M. Zohner. GMW vs. Yao? Efficient secure two-party computation with low depth circuits. In FC’13, volume 7859 of LNCS, pages 275–292. Springer, 2013.

[39] O. Goldreich. The Foundations of Cryptography - volume 2, Basic Applications. Cambridge University Press, 2004.

[40] J. B. Nielsen, P. S. Nordholt, C. Orlandi, and S. S. Burra. A new approach to practical active-secure two-party computation. In CRYPTO’12, volume 7417 of LNCS, pages 681–700. Springer, 2012.

[41] J. B. Nielsen, T. Schneider, and R. Trifiletti. Constant round maliciously secure 2PC with function-independent preprocessing using LEGO. In NDSS’17. The Internet Society, 2017.

[42] Y. Aumann and Y. Lindell. Security against covert adversaries: Efficient protocols for realistic adversaries. In TCC’07, volume 4392 of LNCS, pages 137–156. Springer, 2007.

[43] I. Damgård, M. Geisler, and J. B. Nielsen. From passive to covert security at low cost. In TCC’10, volume 5978 of LNCS, pages 128–145. Springer, 2010.

[44] G. Asharov and C. Orlandi. Calling out cheaters: Covert security with public verifiability. In ASIACRYPT’12, volume 7658 of LNCS, pages 681–698. Springer, 2012.

[45] Vladimir Kolesnikov and Alex J Malozemoff. Public verifiability in the covert model (almost) for free. In ASIACRYPT’14, volume 9453 of LNCS, pages 210–235. Springer, 2014.

[46] A. Aly, E. Cuvelier, S. Mawet, O. Pereira, and M. Van Vyve. Securely solving simple combinatorial graph problems. In FC’13, volume 7859 of LNCS, pages 239–257. Springer, 2013.

[47] S. Zahur, M. Rosulek, and D. Evans. Two halves make a whole: Reducing data transfer in garbled circuits using half gates. In EUROCRYPT’15, volume 9057 of LNCS, pages 220–250. Springer, 2015.

[48] M. Bellare, V. Hoang, S. Keelveedhi, and P. Rogaway. Efficient garbling from a fixed-key blockcipher. In S&P’13, pages 478–492. IEEE, 2013.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 364 291 29
PDF Downloads 212 191 8