The influence of cultural background on people’s privacy decisions is widely recognized. However, a cross-cultural approach to predicting privacy decisions is still lacking. Our paper presents a first integrated cross-cultural privacy prediction model that merges cultural, demographic, attitudinal and contextual prediction. The model applies supervised machine learning to users’ decisions on the collection of their personal data, collected from a large-scale quantitative study in eight different countries. We find that adding culture-related predictors (i.e. country of residence, language, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions) to demographic, attitudinal and contextual predictors in the model can improve the prediction accuracy. Hofstede’s variables - particularly individualism and indulgence - outperform country and language. We further apply generalized linear mixed-effect regression to explore possible interactions between culture and other predictors. We find indeed that the impact of contextual and attitudinal predictors varies between different cultures. The implications of such models in developing privacy-enabling technologies are discussed.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 A. Acquisti and J. Grossklags. Privacy Attitudes and Privacy Behavior. In L. Camp and S. Lewis, editors, Economics of Information Security, volume 12 of Advances in Information Security, pages 165–178. Springer US, 2004.
 I. Ajzen. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2):179–211, 1991.
 I. Altman. Privacy Regulation: Culturally Universal or Culturally Specific? Journal of Social Issues, 33(3):66–84, July 1977.
 A. Anton, J. Earp, and J. Young. How internet users’ privacy concerns have evolved since 2002. IEEE Security Privacy, 8(1):21–27, Jan. 2010.
 K. Bartel Sheehan. An investigation of gender differences in on-line privacy concerns and resultant behaviors. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 13(4):24–38, 1999.
 R. F. Baskerville. Hofstede never studied culture. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 28(1):1–14, Jan. 2003.
 S. Bellman, E. J. Johnson, S. J. Kobrin, and G. L. Lohse. International Differences in Information Privacy Concerns: A Global Survey of Consumers. The Information Society, 20(5):313–324, Nov. 2004.
 M. Benisch, P. G. Kelley, N. Sadeh, and L. Cranor. Capturing Location-Privacy Preferences: Quantifying Accuracy and User-Burden Tradeoffs. Technical Report CMU-ISR-10-105, 2010.
 I. Bilogrevic, K. Huguenin, B. Agir, M. Jadliwala, and J.-P. Hubaux. Adaptive Information-sharing for Privacy-aware Mobile Social Networks. In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, UbiComp ’13, pages 657–666, New York, NY, USA, 2013. ACM.
 S. S. Brehm and J. W. Brehm. Psychological Reactance: A Theory of Freedom and Control. Academic Press, Oct. 2013.
 H. Cho, M. Rivera-Sánchez, and S. S. Lim. A multinational study on online privacy: global concerns and local responses. New Media Society, 11(3):395–416, May 2009.
 T. C. C. Connection. Chinese Values and the Search for Culture-Free Dimensions of Culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18(2):143–164, June 1987.
 T. Dinev, M. Bellotto, P. Hart, V. Russo, and I. Serra. Internet Users’ Privacy Concerns and Beliefs About Government Surveillance: An Exploratory Study of Differences Between Italy and the United States. Journal of Global Information Management, 14(4):57–93, 2006.
 T. Dinev, M. Bellotto, P. Hart, V. Russo, I. Serra, and C. Colautti. Privacy calculus model in e-commerce – a study of Italy and the United States. Eur J Inf Syst, 15(4):389–402, 2006.
 C. Dong, H. Jin, and B. P. Knijnenburg. Predicting Privacy Behavior on Online Social Networks. In Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media, pages 91–100. AAAI Publications, Apr. 2015.
 L. Fang and K. LeFevre. Privacy Wizards for Social Networking Sites. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW ’10, pages 351–360, Raleigh, NC, 2010. ACM.
 R. L. Helmreich and A. R. Merritt. Culture at work in aviation and medicine: national, organizational and professional influences. Ashgate, 2001.
 G. Hofstede. What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers’ minds versus respondents’ minds. J Int Bus Stud, 37(6):882–896, Sept. 2006.
 G. Hofstede. Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), Dec. 2011.
 G. Hofstede and M. H. Bond. Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions An Independent Validation Using Rokeach’s Value Survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 15(4):417–433, Dec. 1984.
 G. H. Hofstede and G. Hofstede. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. SAGE, Apr. 2001.
 G. Holmes, A. Donkin, and I. H. Witten. WEKA: a machine learning workbench. In Proceedings of the 1994 Second Australian and New Zealand Conference on Intelligent Information Systems, 1994, pages 357–361, Nov. 1994.
 M. H. Hoppe. A comparative study of country elites: International differences in work-related values and learning and their implications for management training and development. PhD thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990.
 R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman, and V. Gupta. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. SAGE Publications, Apr. 2004.
 L. K. John, A. Acquisti, and G. Loewenstein. Strangers on a Plane: Context-Dependent Willingness to Divulge Sensitive Information. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(5):858–873, Feb. 2011.
 B. P. Knijnenburg. Information Disclosure Profiles for Segmentation and Recommendation. In SOUPS2014 Workshop on Privacy Personas and Segmentation, Menlo Park, CA, 2014.
 B. P. Knijnenburg. A user-tailored approach to privacy decision support. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, 2015.
 B. P. Knijnenburg, A. Kobsa, and H. Jin. Dimensionality of information disclosure behavior. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 71(12):1144–1162, 2013.
 S. Lederer, J. Mankoff, and A. K. Dey. Who wants to know what when? privacy preference determinants in ubiquitous computing. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 724–725, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, 2003. ACM Press.
 P. G. Leon, A. Kobsa, and C. Nguyen. Contextual Determinants for Users’ Acceptance of Personal Data Processing: A Multinational Analysis. Technical Report UCI-ISR-16-15, Institute for Software Research, University of California, Irvine, December 2016.
 S. J. Milberg, S. J. Burke, H. J. Smith, and E. A. Kallman. Values, Personal Information Privacy, and Regulatory Approaches. Commun. ACM, 38(12):65–74, Dec. 1995.
 S. J. Milberg, H. J. Smith, and S. J. Burke. Information Privacy: Corporate Management and National Regulation. Organization Science, 11(1):35–57, Feb. 2000.
 C. L. Miltgen and D. Peyrat-Guillard. Cultural and generational influences on privacy concerns: a qualitative study in seven European countries. Eur J Inf Syst, 23(2):103–125, Mar. 2014.
 H. Nissenbaum. Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life. Stanford University Press, Nov. 2009.
 P. A. Norberg and D. R. Horne. Privacy attitudes and privacy-related behavior. Psychology and Marketing, 24(10):829–847, 2007.
 J. Phelps, G. Nowak, and E. Ferrell. Privacy Concerns and Consumer Willingness to Provide Personal Information. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 19(1):27–41, Mar. 2000.
 S. Piramuthu. Input data for decision trees. Expert Systems with Applications, 34(2):1220–1226, Feb. 2008.
 C. Posey, P. B. Lowry, T. L. Roberts, and T. S. Ellis. Proposing the online community self-disclosure model: the case of working professionals in France and the U.K. who use online communities. Eur J Inf Syst, 19(2):181–195, Apr. 2010.
 J. R. Quinlan. C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning. Elsevier, June 2014.
 S. Rodgers and M. A. Harris. Gender and E-Commerce: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Advertising Research, 43(03):322–329, Sept. 2003.
 S. H. Schwartz. Are There Universal Aspects in the Structure and Contents of Human Values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4):19–45, Jan. 1994.
 K. B. Sheehan and M. G. Hoy. Dimensions of Privacy Concern Among Online Consumers. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 19(1):62–73, Mar. 2000.
 H. J. Smith, S. J. Milberg, and S. J. Burke. Information Privacy: Measuring Individuals’ Concerns about Organizational Practices. MIS Quarterly, 20(2):167–196, June 1996.
 P. B. Smith, S. Dugan, and F. Trompenaars. National Culture and the Values of Organizational Employees A Dimensional Analysis Across 43 Nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27(2):231–264, Mar. 1996.
 J.-B. E. Steenkamp and I. Geyskens. How Country Characteristics Affect the Perceived Value of Web Sites. Journal of Marketing, 70(3):136–150, July 2006.
 E. Toch, J. Cranshaw, P. H. Drielsma, J. Y. Tsai, P. G. Kelley, J. Springfield, L. Cranor, J. Hong, and N. Sadeh. Empirical models of privacy in location sharing. In Proceedings of the 12th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, pages 129–138, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2010. ACM Press.
 H. C. Triandis. Individualism & collectivism, volume xv of New directions in social psychology. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, US, 1995.
 J. A. Vandello and D. Cohen. Patterns of individualism and collectivism across the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(2):279–292, Aug. 1999.
 P. Wang and L. A. Petrison. Direct marketing activities and personal privacy. A consumer survey. J. Direct Mark., 7(1):7–19, Dec. 1993.
 J. Xie, B. P. Knijnenburg, and H. Jin. Location Sharing Privacy Preference: Analysis and Personalized Recommendation. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, IUI ’14, pages 189–198, New York, NY, USA, 2014. ACM.
 Z. Yang, R. T. Peterson, and S. Cai. Services quality dimensions of Internet retailing: an exploratory analysis. Journal of Services Marketing, 17(7):685–700, Dec. 2003.
 L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Q. Liu. A meta-analysis of mobile commerce adoption and the moderating effect of culture. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5):1902–1911, Sept. 2012.