Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Hybrid Conversion of Inland Passenger Vessel

Wojciech Litwin 1 , Wojciech Leśniewski 2  und Jakub Kowalski 2
  • 1 Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 , Gdańsk, Poland
  • 2 Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 , Gdańsk, Poland


The development and growing availability of modern technologies, along with more and more severe environment protection standards which frequently take a form of legal regulations, are the reason why attempts are made to find a quiet and economical propulsion system not only for newly built watercraft units, but also for modernised ones. Correct selection of the propulsion and supply system for a given vessel affects significantly not only the energy efficiency of the propulsions system but also the environment - as this selection is crucial for the noise and exhaust emission levels. The paper presents results of experimental examination of ship power demand performed on a historic passenger ship of 25 m in length. Two variants, referred to as serial and parallel hybrid propulsion systems, were examined with respect to the maximum length of the single-day route covered by the ship. The recorded power demands and environmental impact were compared with those characteristic for the already installed conventional propulsion system. Taking into account a high safety level expected to be ensured on a passenger ship, the serial hybrid system was based on two electric motors working in parallel and supplied from two separate sets of batteries. This solution ensures higher reliability, along with relatively high energy efficiency. The results of the performed examination have revealed that the serial propulsion system is the least harmful to the environment, but its investment cost is the highest. In this context, the optimum solution for the ship owner seems to be a parallel hybrid system of diesel-electric type

Falls das inline PDF nicht korrekt dargestellt ist, können Sie das PDF hier herunterladen.

  • 1. M. C. Díaz-de-Baldasano, F. J. Mateos, L. R. Núnez-Rivas, and T. J. Leo, “Conceptual design of offshore platform supply vessel based on hybrid diesel generator-fuel cell power plant,” Appl. Energy, vol. 116, pp. 91-100, 2014.

  • 2. G. Sattler, “Fuel cells going on-board,” J. Power Sources, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 61-67, 2000.

  • 3. A. Psoma and G. Sattler, “Fuel cell systems for submarines: From the first idea to serial production,” J. Power Sources, vol. 106, no. 1-2, pp. 381-383, 2002.

  • 4. C. H. Choi et al., “Development and demonstration of PEM fuel-cell-battery hybrid system for propulsion of tourist boat,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 3591-3599, 2016.

  • 5. Y. M. A. Welaya, M. M. El Gohary, and N. R. Ammar, “A comparison between fuel cells and other alternatives for marine electric power generation,” Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 141-149, 2011.

  • 6. N.-C. Shih, B.-J. Weng, J.-Y. Lee, and Y.-C. Hsiao, “Development of a small fuel cell underwater vehicle,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 38, no. 25, pp. 11138-11143, 2013.

  • 7. N. C. Shih, B. J. Weng, J. Y. Lee, and Y. C. Hsiao, “Development of a 20 kW generic hybrid fuel cell power system for small ships and underwater vehicles,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 39, no. 25, pp. 13894-13901, 2014.

  • 8. C. R. Lashway, A. T. Elsayed, and O. A. Mohammed, “Hybrid energy storage management in ship power systems with multiple pulsed loads,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 141, pp. 50-62, 2016.

  • 9. J. Wilflinger, P. Ortner, R. Johannes, K. Universität, M. Aschaber, and S. Motors, Simulation and control design of hybrid propulsions in boats, vol. 43, no. Ljung. IFAC, 1999.

  • 10. G. Seenumani, H. Peng, and J. Sun, “A reference governorbased hierarchical control for failure mode power management of hybrid power systems for all-electric ships,” J. Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 3, pp. 1599-1607, 2011.

  • 11. Dante D’Orazio, “An inside look at the world’s largest solarpowered boat,” The Verge, vol. 2013, pp. 1-13, 2013.

  • 12. W. Sihn, H. Pascher, K. Ott, S. Stein, A. Schumacher, and G. Mascolo, “A Green and Economic Future of Inland Waterway Shipping,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 29, pp. 317-322, 2015.

  • 13. E. K. Dedes, D. A. Hudson, and S. R. Turnock, “Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping,” Energy Policy, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 204-218, 2012.

  • 14. D. A. Cooper, “Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 4189-4200, 2001.

  • 15. Y. Shi, “Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping: Is it time to consider market-based measures?,” Mar. Policy, vol. 64, pp. 123-134, 2016.

  • 16. J. Yuan, S. H. Ng, and W. S. Sou, “Uncertainty quantification of CO2 emission reduction for maritime shipping,” Energy Policy, vol. 88, pp. 113-130, 2016.

  • 17. B. Zahedi, L. E. Norum, and K. B. Ludvigsen, “Optimized efficiency of all-electric ships by dc hybrid power systems,” J. Power Sources, vol. 255, pp. 341-354, 2014.

  • 18. D. Borelli, T. Gaggero, E. Rizzuto, and C. Schenone, “Analysis of noise on board a ship during navigation and manoeuvres,” Ocean Eng., vol. 105, pp. 256-269, 2015.

  • 19. A. Badino, D. Borelli, T. Gaggero, E. Rizzuto, and C. Schenone, “Airborne noise emissions from ships: Experimental characterization of the source and propagation over land,” Appl. Acoust., vol. 104, pp. 158- 171, 2016.

  • 20. J. Kowalski, W. Leśniewski, and W. Litwin, “Multi-sourcesupplied parallel hybrid propulsion of the inland passenger ship STA.H. Research work on energy efficiency of a hybrid propulsion system operating in the electric motor drive mode,” Polish Marit. Res., vol. 20, pp. 20-27, 2013.

  • 21. I. S. Seddiek and M. M. Elgohary, “Eco-friendly selection of ship emissions reduction strategies with emphasis on SOx and NOx emissions,” Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 737-748, 2014.

  • 22. I. S. Seddiek, M. Mosleh, and A. A. Banawan, “Thermoeconomic approach for absorption air condition onboard high-speed crafts,” Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 460-476, 2012.

  • 23. M. Morsy El Gohary and I. S. Seddiek, “Utilization of alternative marine fuels for gas turbine power plant onboard ships,” Int. J. Nav. Archit. Ocean Eng., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 21-32, 2013.

  • 24. M. A. Kalam and H. H. Masjuki, “Emissions and deposit characteristics of a small diesel engine when operated on preheated crude palm oil,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 289-297, 2004.

  • 25. M. Mikulski, K. Duda, and S. Wierzbicki, “Performance and emissions of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with swine lard methyl esters-diesel mixture,” Fuel, vol. 164, no. x, pp. 206-219, 2016.


Zeitschrift + Hefte