Study of Seasonal Acoustic Properties of Sea Water in Selected Waters of the Southern Baltic

Grażyna Grelowska 1 , 2
  • 1 Prof. Gdańsk Univeristy of Technology, Poland
  • 2 Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology Gdańsk Univeristy of Technology 11/12 Narutowicza St. 80-233 Gdańsk Poland

Abstract

Climate Research of the globe is a current task, in particular to confirm the general hypothesis of global warming associated with an increase in average temperature. The sea acoustic climate is derived from the concept of climate and refers to the conditions of propagation of acoustic waves in a particular basin. In this paper, the results of systematic measurements of temperature, salinity and velocity distributions of sound in the area of the southern Baltic will be present. The focus will be on the results of extensive measurements carried out „in situ” in particular.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Feistel R., Nausch G., Wasmund N.: State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea, 1952-2005. A Detailed 50-Year Survey of Metrology and Climate, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Marine Environment, Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2008.

  • 2. Fofonoff N.P., Millard R.C. Jr.: Algorithm for computation of fundamental properties of seawater, UNESCO Technical papers in Marine Science No. 44, 1983.

  • 3. Gerdes, F. · Hofmann, H-G. · Jans, W. · Künzel, S. · Nissen, I. · Dol, H.S., Proceedings 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Underwater Acoustic Measurements - Technologies & Results - UAM 2009, 21-26 June 2009, Nafplion, Greece.

  • 4. Gloza I.: Identification methods of underwater noise sources generated by small ships, Acta Physica Polonica A, 119, 961-965, 2011.

  • 5. Grelowska G.: The prevailing patterns of the sound speed distribution in the environment of the Southern Baltic, Archives of Acoustics, 25, p. 359-368, 2000.

  • 6. Grelowska G., Kozaczka E., Kozaczka S., Szymczak W.: Underwater noise generated by a small ship in the shallow sea, Archives on Acoustics, 38, 3, 351-356, 2013.

  • 7. G. Grelowska, E. Kozaczka, Nonlinear properties of the Gotland Deep - Baltic Sea, Archives of Acoustics, 40, 4, 2015.

  • 8. Hela I.: The Sound Channel of the Baltic Sea, Geophysica, 5, p.153-161, 1958

  • 9. Holec M., Ratowski J.: Pinowe rozkłady I gradient prędkości dźwieku w południowym Bałtyku I ich bieg roczny, Proc. Of the 25th Open Seminar on Acoustics, 143-151, Poznań 1978.

  • 10. Klusek Z.: The conditions for sound propagation in the southern Baltic, Ed. Institute of Oceanology, 1, 269 pp., Sopot 1991 (in Polish).

  • 11. Klusek Z.: The state of the Baltic Sea acoustic investigations, Proceedings of the International Conference “Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies & Results”Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 28th June - 1st July 2005.

  • 12. Koppen W.: Grundriss der Klimakunde, Berlin 1931.

  • 13. Kozaczka E., Grelowska G.: Shipping low frequency noise and its propagation in shallow water, Acta Physica Polonica A, 119, 6, 1009-1012, 2011.

  • 14. Kozaczka E., Grelowska G., Szymczak W., Kozaczka S.: Processing data on sea bottom structure obtained by means of the parametric sounding, Polish Maritime Research, 19, 4, 3-10, 2012

  • 15. Kozaczka E., Grelowska G., Kozaczka S., Szymczak W., Detection of objects buried in the sea bottom with the use of parametric echosounder, Archives on Acoustics, 38, 1, 99-104, 2013.

  • 16. Łomniewski K., Mańkowski W., Zaleski J.: Morze Bałtyckie, Warszawa 1975.

  • 17. Marszal J., Salamon R.: Detection range of intercept sonar for CWFM signals, Archives of Acoustics, 39, 2, 215-230, 2014.

  • 18. Mietus M., The climate of the Baltic Sea Basin, World Meteorological Organisation, Marine Meteorology and Related Ocaenographics Activities, Rep. No 41, WMO/ TD-No. 999, Geneva 1998.

  • 19. Niros A. Vihma T., Launiainen J.: Marine meteorological conditions and air-sea Exchange processes over the northern Baltic Sea In 1990s, Geophysica, Vol. 38, 1/2, 59-87, 2002.

  • 20. Piechura J., Beszczyńska -Moeller A.: Inflow waters in the deep regions of the southern Baltic Sea: Transport and transformation (corrected version). Oceanologia, 46(1), 113-141, 2004.

  • 21. Piechura J.: Longterm changes in hydrological conditions of the southern Baltic, Bull. Sea Fish. Inst., 128, 1, 45-57, 1993.

  • 22. Pihl J.: Underwater acoustics in the Baltic - a challenging research task, Proceedings of the International Conference “Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies & Results”,Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 28th June - 1st July

  • 2005.

  • 23. Rybak S.A., Serebryany A.N.: Nonlinear internal waves over the inclined bottom: observations with the use of an acoustic profiler, Acoustical Physics, 57, 1, 77-82, 2011.

  • 24. Smedsrud M., Jenserud T., Characterization of long-range time-varying underwater acoustic Communications channels, Acoustics 08, Proceedings of European Conference on Underwater Acoustics, pp. 6097-6102, Paris 2008.

  • 25. Śliwiński A.: Akustyka morza, Enc. Fizyki Współcz., 880-885, PWN, Warszawa 1983.

  • 26. The BACC Author Team: Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea basin, Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008.

  • 27. The BACC Author Team, Second assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea basin, Springer, 2015.

  • 28. Tymański P.: Struktura akustyczna wód południowego Bałtyku, Stud. Mater. Oceanol., 7, 183-189, 1973.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search