This article is devoted to the analysis of the situation regarding the education of Roma children in Albania and Belarus, evidencing the similarities and differences in legislation and policies in both countries, aiming at highlighting the best practices for each state. The study also analyses whether there is any real approach for inclusive education, despite the legislation in force in both countries, as well as evaluating the next steps to be followed for achieving inclusive education for Roma children, whether as part of a minority group or not. Inclusive education is the main focus of those European policies and legislation that guarantees the right to education to everyone. Vulnerability and marginalization are present in all countries. Even the more developed societies have categories of their population that are defined as vulnerable or marginalized. They may not suffer from poverty, but other factors, such as disability or linguistic/ethnic particularities can be sources of marginalization and underachievement. Every human being is different. Because of this diversity, the law should find ways of treating everybody as equal, and with the same access to education and to every other human right. One of the main causes of discrimination and lack of access to education is being a member of a minority group, especially those ones which are not fully recognised as national minorities, such as the Roma. After the fall of communism in Albania, the transitional period towards a democratic system affected the right to education for Roma children, making them suffer from a lack of access to education. The same is reflected in Belarus, where the right to education for Roma children is more protected by non-governmental organizations rather than the state. Treating Roma children with equal access to education will not only help this marginalized group, but also the whole of society by accepting the differences as a normal phenomenon.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Annual Reports of People’s Advocate in Albania. (2014-2017). Retrieved from: https://www.avokatipopullit.gov.al/en/ (accessed: November 30 2018).
Bagnoud F.H. (2015). Strategies to combat segregation of Romani children in schools. Case studies in Bulgaria Croatia the Czech Republic Greece Hungary and Romania. Harvard University. Retrieved from: https://cdn2.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/114/2017/12/Romani-Segregation-2015-brief-version-final.pdf (accessed: November 15 2018).
Bühmann D. & Trudell B. (2008). Mother tongue matters: Local language as a key to effective learning. Paris France: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000161121(accessed: October 10 2018).
Center of Equal Rights and Expertise Social integration of the Roma population in Belarus: providing the right for equality 2016 p. 3-4. Retrieved from: http://romaintegration.by/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Roma_en_forsite.pdf (accessed: November 18 2018).
Council of Europe Framework Convention “On the Protection of National Minorities” Retrieved from: https://rm.coe.int/16800c10cf (accessed: December 11 2018).
Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedom. Retrieved from: https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf (accessed: December 22 2018).
Constitution of the Republic of Belarus with amendments and additions adopted at republican referendums on November 24 1996 and October 17 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.pravo.by/pravovaya-informatsiya/normativnye-dokumenty/konstitutsiya-respubliki-belarus/ (accessed: December 22 2018).
Decision no. 633 dated 18.09.2003 of the Council of Ministers “On the adoption of a strategy for improving the living conditions of the Roma minority” published in the Official Gazette no. 85 Oct. 2003.
Decision No.107 dated 10.2.2010 of the Council of Ministers “On the publication printing distribution and sale of textbooks of the pre-university education system” published in the Official Gazette no. 25 of 2010.
Document of the 1990 Copenhagen Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE Retrieved from: https://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/14304 (accessed: December 20 2018).
Halwachs W.D. (2012). Linguistic Diversity Dominated Languages and the Internet: The Case of Romani. University of Graz. RomIdent Working Paper. Retrieved from: http://romani.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/virtuallibrary/librarydb/web/files/pdfs/357/Paper4.pdf (accessed: October 10 2018).
Ministry of Education of the Republic of Belarus. (2013/2014) Belarusian education in the context of international indicators. State statistical reporting. Retrieved from: https://edu.gov.by/en-uk/ (accessed: December 20 2018).
Instruction No. 10 dated 3.4.2015 of the Ministry of Education and Sport. On the content and form of the license of the successful candidate at the state exam for exercising of the regulated profession of teacher.
Instruction no. 6 dated 29.03.2006 of the Ministry of Education and Science. On the registration of Roma students who are not equipped with a certificate of birth.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966). Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/2200(XXI) (accessed: December 22 2018).
Kocollari N. (2009). Challenges of integration and social segregation of Roma people in Levan commune southern Albania. Journal of Alb-Shkenca Institute III(4) 2.
Kotljarchuk A. (2013). World War II Memory Politics: Jewish Polish and Roma Minorities of Belarus. The Journal of Belarusian Studies 7(1) 7-37 Retrieved from: https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://belarusjournal.com/sites/default/files/World+War+II+Memory+Politics.pdf (accessed: November 20 2018).
Kyuchukov H. (2018). Transformative education for Roma (gypsy) children: an insider’s view. Roma transformative education. Open Society Institute. New York. DOI: 10.1080/14675980020002420. p. 2.
Кутузова H. Рыбаков M. & Черных Д. (2015). Право на равенство и недискриминацию этнических меньшинств в Беларуси. Аналитический отчет p. 46. Retrieved from: http://romaintegration.by/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Pravo_na_ravenstvo_rus_web.pdf (accessed: October 10 2018)
Law no. 69/2012 dated 21.06.2012. On the pre-university education system in the Republic of Albania published in the Official Gazette No. 87 of 2012.
Law no. 96/2017 dated 13.10.2017. On the Protection of National Minorities in the Republic of Albania published in the Official Gazette No. 19 of 2017.
Law of the Republic of Belarus no. 2570-XII dated 19.11.1993. On Child’s Rights. Retrieved from: https://base.spinform.ru/show_doc.fwx?rgn=1844 (accessed: December 20 2018).
Law of the Republic of Belarus no. 1926-XII dated 11.11.1992. On National Minorities in the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved from https://base.spinform.ru/show_doc.fwx?rgn=1835 (accessed: December 20 2018).
Law of the Republic of Belarus no. 187-3/1998 dated 26.01.1990. On Languages in the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved from http://base.spinform.ru/show_doc.fwx?rgn=1869 (accessed: November 20 2018).
MoES Guideline No. 34 dated 8.12.2004. On the implementation of the project: Second Chance for the education of students who have dropped out of school and students stuck for blood feud.
MoES. (2016). Strategy On the Development of Pre-University Education for the period 2014-2020. approved by the Decision of Council of Ministers No. 11.
National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus (2010). Population by nationality and native language. Retrieved from: http://www.belstat.gov.by/upload-belstat/upload-belstat-pdf/perepis_2009/5.8-0.pdf (accessed: December 20 2018).
OSCE. (2006). National Strategy of Improving Roma living conditions Tirane: Pegi. p. 12.
Portal of the President of the Republic of Belarus. (2019). Higher education in Belarus. Retrieved from: http://president.gov.by/ru/university_ru (accessed: December 20 2018).
Project on Social integration of the Roma population in Belarus: providing the right for equality. (2014). Retrieved from: http://romaintegration.by/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Social-integration-of-the-Roma-population-in-Belarus.pdf (accessed: November 20 2018).
Strategy On the Development of Pre-University Education for the period 2014-2020 approved by the Decision of Council of Ministers No. 11 of 11.01.2016.
The Constitution of the Republic of Albania approved by law no. 8417 dated 21.10.1998 of the People’s Assembly approved by referendum on 22.11.1998 and promulgated by Decree no. 2260 dated 28.11.1998 of the President of the Republic of Albania.
Tremlett A. (2011). Trying to solve a European problem: a comprehensive strategy for Roma minorities. Retrieved from: https://www.opendemocracy.net/annabel-tremlett/trying-to-solve-european-problem-comprehensive-strategy-for-roma-minorities (accessed: December 20 2018).
UNESCO. (2010). Reaching the marginalized. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/Reaching_the_Marginalized.pdf (accessed: November 20 2018).
UNESCO. (2017). Albania Education Policy Review Issues and Recommendations. Paris. April 2017 ED-2017/WS/23 Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/epale/sites/epale/files/albania_education_policy_review_issues_and_recommandations_april_2017.pdf (accessed: June 02 2018).
UNESCO. (1966). Convention against Discrimination in the Field of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/educat.shtml (accessed: November 20 2018).
UNESCO. (2005). Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/cultural_expression.shtml (accessed: November 20 2018).
United Nations. (2013). International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Concluding observations on the combined eighteenth to nineteenth periodic reports of Belarus adopted by the Committee at its eighty-third session. Retrieved from: https://www.ecoi.net/en/file/local/1355528/1930_1388738531_g1347014.pdf (accessed: November 20 2018).
United Nations. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/44/25 (accessed: November 20 2018).