Sintered Structural Steels Containing Mn, Cr And Mo – The Summary of the Investigations

Abstract

The paper is presented the development and method of production of modern, Ni-free sintered structural steels which contain carbide forming alloying elements (Cr) with high affinity for oxygen (Cr, Mn) and the much smaller additive of an expensive alloying element (Mo), enabling the production of structural sintered steels in commercial belt furnaces, using safe sintering atmospheres. The investigations reported deal with the analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties of these sintered structural steels produced in different processing conditions, especially modification of chemical composition of sintering atmosphere and also the connections between the microstructure of sintered material and its mechanical properties. This analysis was done to propose the appropriate chemical composition of sintered Ni-free steels with properties which are comparable or even better than those of sintered structural steels containing rich and carcinogenic nickel. The investigations of PM Mn- Cr-Mo steels were preceded by those on Mn steels.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] German, RM.: Powder metallurgy science. Princeton : MPIF, 1984

  • [2] EU Carcinogenic Directives 90/394/EEC and 91/322/EEC

  • [3] Mitchell, SC., Wronski, AS., Cias, A., Stoytchev, M. In: Proc. PM2TEC 1999. Vol. 3, 1999, p. 7

  • [4] Mitchell, SC., Wronski, AS., Cias, A.: Inżynieria Materiałowa, vol. 5, 2001, p. 633

  • [5] Wronski, AS., et al.: Tough, fatigue and wear resistance sintered gear wheels. Final Report on EU Copernicus Contract no ERB CIPA-CT94-0108, European Commission, 1998

  • [6] Sulowski, M., Cias, A.: Inżynieria Materiałowa, vol. 4, 1998, p. 1179

  • [7] Cias, A., Sulowski, M., Stoytchev, M. In: Proc. of 7th European Conf. on Advanced Materials and Processes - EUROMAT 2001, June 2001

  • [8] Keresti, R., Selecka, M., Šalak, A. In: Proc. Int. Conf. DFPM’99. Vol. 2, 1999, p. 108

  • [9] Mitchell, SC., Becker, BS., Wronski, AS. In: Proc. 2000 PM World Congress. Vol. 2, 2000, p. 923

  • [10] Cias, A., Stoytchev, M., Wronski, AS. In: Proc. 2001 Int. Conf. on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials. Vol. 10, 2001, p. 131

  • [11] Šalak, A.: Powder Metallurgy International, vol.16, 1984, p. 6

  • [12] Šalak, A., Leitner G., Hermel, W.: Powder Metallurgy International, vol. 13, 1981, p. 1

  • [13] James, J., Lindsley, B., Rutz, B., Narasimhan, KS. In: Proc. Euro PM2009. Vol. 1, 2009, p. 23

  • [14] Lindsley, B., James, J. In: Proc. 2010 PM World Congress&Exhibition. Vol. 3. Sintered steels, 2010, p. 151

  • [15] Bergman, O., Bengtsson, S. In: Euro PM2009, Sintered Steels II - Sinterhardening

  • [16] Dudrova, E., Kabatova, M., Bidulsky, R., Wronski, AS.: Powder Metall., vol. 47, 2004, no. 2, p. 181

  • [17] Bidulský, R., Grande, M-A. In: Proc. PM2010 World Congress. Vol. 3. Sintered Steels: Mechanical Properties, 2010, p. 95

  • [18] Hryha, E., Nyborg, L., Dudrova, E., Bengtsson, S. In: Proc. Euro PM2009. Sintered Steels 1 - Composition

  • [19] Hryha, E. In: Proc. Euro PM2013. Vol. 2. Sintering - Atmospheres and Atmosphere Control, p. 333

  • [20] Hryha, E. In: Euro PM2013. Vol. 2. Sintering - Fundamentals and Modelling, p. 303

  • [21] Gierl-Mayer, C. In: Proc. Euro PM2013. Vol. 3. Sintered Steels - Fatigue and Durability, p. 397

  • [22] Ciaś, A.: Science of Sintering, vol. 47, 2015, no. 1, p. 61

  • [23] Metalog guide, Struers A/S, 1992

  • [24] Ciaś, A., Mitchell, SC., Pilch, K., Ciaś, H., Sułowski, M., Wronski, AS.: Powder Metall., vol. 46, 2003, no. 2, p. 165

  • [25] Ciaś, A., Mitchell, SC., Wronski, AS. In: Proc. Euro PM2004. Vol. 2. Sintering - Secondary and finishing operations, p. 5

  • [26] Ciaś, A., Mitchell, SC., Watts, A., Wronski, AS.: Powder Metallurgy, vol. 42, 1999, no. 3 p. 227

  • [27] Mitchell, SC., Wronski, AS., Ciaś, A., Stoytchev, M. In: Proc. DF PM'99 - Deformation and Fracture in structural PM materials. Vol. 1, 1999, p. 1

  • [28] Ciaś, A., Mitchell, SC.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 5, 2005, no. 2, p. 82

  • [29] Hryha, E., Nyborg, L.: Powder Metall., vol. 57, 2014, no. 4, p. 245

  • [30] Sułowski, M., Ciaś, A.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 49, 2004, no. 1, p. 55

  • [31] Sułowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 49, 2004, no. 3, p. 641

  • [32] Sułowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 50, 2005, no. 4, p. 827

  • [33] Ducket, R., Robin, DA.: The International Journal of Metals and Materials, vol. 74, 1966, no. 444, p. 163

  • [34] Esper, FJ., Friese, K-H., Zeller, R.: International Journal of Powder Metallurgy, vol. 5,1969, no. 3, p. 19

  • [35] Chatterjee, SK., Castell-Evans, JV., Ainsworth, PA.: Powder Metallurgy, vol. 15, 1972, no. 30, p. 153

  • [36] Chatterjee, SK., Mackay, CA.: Powder Metall., vol. 23, 1980, no. 4, p. 183

  • [37] Sułowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 2, 2006, no. 51, p. 227

  • [38] Sułowski, M., Dudek, P.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 53, 2008, no. 3, p. 827

  • [39] SigmaScan Pro - http://www.sigmaplot.com/products/sigmascan/sigmascan.php, 18.09.2015

  • [40] Goetzl, GC.: Treatise on powder metallurgy. New York-London : Intersci. Publ., 1950

  • [41] Kovachev, B., Mihovski, M., Stoytchev, M., Sulowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 1, 2007, no, 52, p. 97

  • [42] Sulowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 52, 2007, no. 4, p. 617

  • [43] Sułowski, M., Faryj, K.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 54, 2009, no. 1, p. 121

  • [44] Ciaś, A., Sułowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 54, 2009, no. 4, p. 1093

  • [45] Ciaś, A.: Development and Properties of Fe-Mn-(Mo)-(Cr)-C Sintered Structural Steels. Krakow : AGH - Uczelniane Wydawnictwa Naukowo-Dydaktyczne, 2004

  • [46] Sułowski, M., Ciaś, A.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 56, 2011, no. 2, p. 293

  • [47] Sułowski, M.: Powder Metall., vol. 53, 2010, no. 2, p. 125

  • [48] Pieczonka, T., Sułowski, M., Cias, A.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 57, 2012, no. 4, p. 1001

  • [49] Sułowski, M., Ciaś A., Pieczonka, T.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 59, 2014, no. 2, p. 575

  • [50] Sulowski, M.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 59, 2014, no. 4, p. 1499

  • [51] Sulowski, M., Kulecki, P., Radziszewska, A.: Arch. Metall. Mater., vol. 59, 2014, no. 4, p. 1506

  • [52] Sulowski, M., Kabatova, M., Dudrova, E.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 12, 2012, no. 2, p. 71

  • [53] Mitchell, SC., Cias, A.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 4, 2004, no. 3, p. 132

  • [54] Šalak, A., Selecká, M., Bureš, P.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 1, 2001, no. 1, p.41

  • [55] Sulowski, M., Cias, A., Pieczonka, T. In: Proc. 6th International Powder Metallurgy Conference and Exhibition. Ankara, Turkey, 2011, p. 177

  • [56] Sulowski, M., Cias, A. In: Proc. 2010 PM World Congress. Vol. 3. Sintered steels, 2010, p. 103

  • [57] Cias, A., Mitchell, SC., Wronski, AS. In: Proc. PM 2004 World Congress & Exhibition. Vol. 2, 2004, p. 1

  • [58] Pieczonka, T., Georgiev, J., Stoytchev, M., Mitchell, SC., Teodosiev, D., Gyurov, S.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 4, 2004, no. 4, p. 211

  • [59] Wronski, AS., Cias, A.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 3, 2003, no. 3, p. 119

  • [60] Ciaś, A.: Powder Metallurgy, vol. 56, 2013, no. 3, p. 231

  • [61] Ciaś, A.: International Journal of Materials Research, vol. 106, 2015, no. 5, p. 494

  • [62] Salak, A.: Powder Metallurgy International, vol. 18, 1986, no. 4, p. 266

  • [63] Hoganas Handbook for Sintered Components. Part 2: Production of sintered components. Hoganas AB 1997, p. 6

  • [64] Schatt, W., Wieters, K-P.: Powder Metallurgy - Processing and Materials, EPMA, 1997, p. 165

  • [65] Sulowski, M., Cias, A., Frydrych, H., Frydrych, J., Olszewska, I., Golen, R., Sowa, M.: Materials Science Forum, vol. 534-536, 2007, no. 1, p. 757

  • [66] Sułowski, M.: Ores and Non-Ferrous Metals , vol. 53, 2008, no. 2, p. 103

  • [67] Technical report from grant: „Struktura i własności mechaniczne spiekanych stali konstrukcyjnych z dodatkiem manganu, chromu i molibdenu, wytwarzanych w atmosferze azotu”, Krakow, December 2007

  • [68] Sułowski, M., Matusiewicz, P.: Inżynieria Materiałowa, 2008, no 4, p. 258

  • [69] Sulowski, M., Matusiewicz, P.: Stereology and Image Analysis in Material Science, Solid State Phenomena, vol. 197, 2013, p. 33

  • [70] Sulowski, M., Kabatova, M., Dudrova, E.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 11, 2011, no. 1-2, p. 132

  • [71] Fiał, C., Dudrova, E., Kabatova, M., Kupková, M., Selecka, M., Sulowski, M., Cias, A.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 14, 2014, no. 3, p. 137

  • [72] Sulowski M.: Powder Metallurgy Progress, vol. 7, 2007, no. 2, p. 80

  • [73] Hryha E., Dudrova E. In: Application of Thermodynamics to Biological and Materials Science, www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-sintering-2011, p. 573

  • [74] Hryha E. Dudrova, E.: Materials Science Forum, vol. 534-536, 2007, p. 761

  • [75] Hrubovcakova, M., Dudrova, E., Hryha, E., Kabatova, M. and Harvanova, J.: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2013, 2013, Article ID 789373

  • [76] Ciaś, A., Sułowski, M., Frydrych, H., Frydrych, J. In: Proc. PM2TEC Montreal. Part 7 - Materials, 2005, p. 31

  • [77] Sulowski, M., Cias, A., Frydrych, H., Frydrych, J., Olszewska, I., Golen, R., Sowa, M. In: Proc. PowderMet2006 International Conference. 2006, p. 10-114

  • [78] Sulowski, M. In: Proc. DFPM 2005. 2005, p. 308

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search