Vitamīnu satura izmaiņas pilngraudu rudzu maizes ražošanā / Changes in Vitamin Content during the Whole Grain Rye Bread Processing

Open access


Whole grain rye bread is a historically rich item in Latvian culture, and Latvians are rightly proud of the rye bread tradition they have cultivated. Much international research has shown that regular intake of rye bread positively influences the consumer health. Latvia has a long history of rye bread preparation, but lacks information about changes in vitamin content during the manufacturing process - from the beginning of baking till the end product - bread. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in vitamin content during the whole grain rye bread production process. The object of the research work: traditional Latvian whole grain rye bread, the dough of which is prepared with scald and natural yeast and then baked in a wood-fired clay oven. AOAC standard methods were used to determine the content of thiamine (B1 vitamin), riboflavin (B2 vitamin), niacin (B3 vitamin), and α-tocopherol (E vitamin). The content of vitamins was analyzed in whole grain rye flour, leavened rye flour dough, and rye bread baked for 30, 45, 60 and 75 minutes. Bread crust and crumb were analyzed separately. The content of B complex vitamers in whole grain rye flour and bread was determined using LC-MS combined with stable isotope dilution assay. The study showed that whole grain rye bread contains a wide range of B complex vitamins. During the whole grain rye bread processing it was observed that, compared to vitamin content in flour, thiamine content reduced by 36%, but content of riboflavin, niacin and α-tocopherol increased by 53%, 40% and 6% respectively.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Arhipova I. & Bāliņa S. (2003). Statistikaekonomikā. Risinājumi ar SSPS un MicrosoftExcel. Mācību līdzeklis. Rīga: Datorzinību centrs.

  • 2. Ball G. (2006). Vitamins in foods. Analysisbioavailability and stability. London New York: CRC Press Taylor & Francis group.

  • 3. Batifoulier F. Verny M.A. Chanliaud E. Remesy C. & Demigne C. (2005). Effect of different breadmaking methods on thiamine riboflavin and pyridoxine contents of wheat bread. Journal of Cereal Science 42 101-108.

  • 4. Council Directive of 24 September 1990 on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs (90/496/ EEC). (1990). Official Journal of the EuropeanCommunities L. 276 40-44.

  • 5. EuroFir. (2011). Whole grain rye bread. Retrieved from European Food Information web site:

  • 6. Fineli. (2010). Foods. Retrieved from Finnish Food Composition database:

  • 7. Hagg M. & Kumpulainen J. (2002). Thiamine and riboflavin contents of Finnish breads and their corresponding flours. Journal of FoodComposition and Analysis 7 94-101.

  • 8. Hakansson B. & Jagerstad M. (1990). The effect of thermal inactivation of lipoxygenase on the stability of vitamin E in wheat. Journal ofCereal Science 12 177-185.

  • 9. Hiller B. Schlormann W. Glei M. & Lindhauer M.G. (2011). Comparative study of colorectal health related compounds in different types of bread: Analysis of bread samples pre and post digestion in batch fermentation model of the human intestine. Food Chemistry 125 1202-1212.

  • 10. Khetarpaul N. & Chauhan B.M. (1989). Effect of fermentation on protein fat minerals and thiamine content of pearl-millet. Plant Foods forHuman Nutrition 39 169-177.

  • 11. Kunkulberga D. & Segliņš V. (2010). Maizesražošanas tehnoloģija. Rīga: RTU izdevniecība.

  • 12. Lextinen P. Kaukovirta-Norja A. & Poutanen K. (2009). Rye and oats - innovativeprocessing and ingredients. Retrieved from

  • 13. Lindhauer M.G. (2008). Anti-oxidative potential of breads in dependence on recipees and baking procedure. In Proceedings of 4th International Congress “Flour - Bread ‘07” (pp. 50-57). Osijek Croatia.

  • 14. Liu S. Manson J.A. Stampfer M. Hu F. Giovannucci E. Colditz G. ... Willett W. (2000). A prospective study of whole-grain intake and risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus in women. American Journal of Public Health 90 1409-1415.

  • 15. Liukkonen K.H. Katina K. Wilhelmsson A. Myllymaki O. Lampi A.M. Kariluoto S. ... Poutanen K. (2003). Process-induced changes on bioactive compounds in whole grain rye. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62 609-619.

  • 16. LR CSP (2010). Latvijas statistikasgadagrāmata 2009. Rīga: LSP.

  • 17. LR Veselības Ministrija. (2008). Ieteicamāsenerģijas un uzturvielu devas Latvijasiedzīvotājiem. Retrieved from 85256499006b15a6/195448bbbf7b0975c22573 13001f19e0/$FILE/IEUD_300908.pdf

  • 18. Martinez-Villaluenga C. Horszwald A. Frias J. Piskula M. Vidal-Valverde C. & Zielinski H. (2009). Effect of flour extraction rate and baking process on vitamin B1 and B2 contents and antioxidant activity of gingerbased products. European Food Research &Technology 230 119-124.

  • 19. Mihhalevski A. Nisamedtinov I. Halvin K. Ošeka A. & Paalme T. (2013). Stability of B-complex vitamins and dietary fiber during rye sourdough bread production. Journal of CerealScience 57 30-38.

  • 20. Montonen J. Jarvinen R. Heliovaara M. Reunanen A. Aromaa A. & Knekt P. (2005). Food consumption and the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 441-448.

  • 21. Montonen J. Knekt P. Jarvinen R. Aromaa A. & Reunanen A. (2003). Whole-grain and fiber intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77 622-629.

  • 22. Nystrom L. Lampi A. Andersson A. Kamal-Eldin A. Gebruers K. Courtin C. ... Piironen V. (2008). Phytochemicals and dietary fiber components in rye varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. Journalof Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 9758-9766.

  • 23. Parikka K. Rowland I.R. Welch R.W. & Wahala K. (2006). In vitro antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity of 5-n-alkylresorcinols. Journal of Agricultural and FoodChemistry 54 1646-1650.

  • 24. Poutanen K. (1997). Rye bread: Added value in the world’s bread basket. Cereal Foods World 42 682-683.

  • 25. Rakčejeva T. (2006). Bioloģiski aktivētigraudi kviešu maizes ražošanā. Promocijas darbs inženierzinātņu doktora zinātniskā grāda iegūšanai pārtikas zinātnē LLU Jelgava.

  • 26. Schatzkin A. Lanza E. Corle D. Lance P. Iber F. Caan B. ... Slattery M. (2000). Lack of effect of a low-fat high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. New EnglandJournal of Medicine 342 1149-1155.

  • 27. Seal C.J. (2006). Whole grains and CVD risk. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 65 24-34.

  • 28. Ward J. Poutanen K. Gebruers K. Piironen V. Lampi A.-M. Nystrom L. ... Shewry P. R. (2008). The HEALTHGRAIN cereal diversity screen: Concept results and prospects. Journalof Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 9699-9709.

  • 29. Wennermark B. & Jagerstad M. (1992). Bread making and storage of various wheat fractions affect vitamin E. Journal of Food Science 57(5) 1205-1209.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 199 80 3
PDF Downloads 157 72 2