Developing Theory of Mind Twenty-Five Years After the Publication of “Z Badań Nad Kompetencją Komunikacyjną Dziecka” (Edited by B. Bokus and M.Haman)

Open access

Abstract

Twenty-five years ago, a book “Z badań nad kompetencją komunikacyjną dziecka”, edited by Barbara Bokus and Maciej Haman, was issued containing, among else, the first Polish review of the studies on the development of Theory of Mind. During these 25 years, the area developed extensively and a new “state-of-the-arts” paper is necessary. The current paper does not pretend to the role of a complete review, instead it focusses on two live issues in the Theory of Mind (ToM) research progress: early (before the age of four years) competences in false-belief understanding, which leads to the question of continuity versus discontinuity (e.g., “Two-system theory”) between early and later ToM abilities, and neuroimaging studies of Theory-of-Mind, which may also contribute to the continuity debate.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Apperly I. (2013). Can theory of mind grow up? Mindreading in adults and its implications for the development and neuroscience of mindreading. In Baron-Cohen S. Tager-Flusberg H. & Lombardo M. (Eds.) Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental social neuroscience (pp. 72–92). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.

  • Apperly I. A. & Butterfill S. A. (2009). Do humans have two systems to track beliefs and belief-like states? Psychological review116(4) 953.

  • Astington J. W. (1993). The child’s discovery of the mind. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Baillargeon R. Buttelmann D. & Southgate V. (2018). Invited commentary: Interpreting failed replications of early false-belief findings: Methodological and theoretical considerations. Cognitive Development46 112–124.

  • Baker S. T. Leslie A. M. Gallistel C. R. & Hood B. M. (2016). Bayesian change-point analysis reveals developmental change in a classic theory of mind task. Cognitive psychology 91 124–149.

  • Bardi L. Desmet C. Nijhof A. Wiersema J. R. & Brass M. (2016). Brain activation for spontaneous and explicit false belief tasks overlaps: new fMRI evidence on belief processing and violation of expectation. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience12(3) 391–400.

  • Bardi L. Six P. & Brass M. (2017). Repetitive TMS of the temporo-parietal junction disrupts participant’s expectations in a spontaneous Theory of Mind task. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience12(11) 1775–1782.

  • Baron-Cohen S. (1989). The autistic child’s theory of mind: A case of specific developmental delay. Journal of child Psychology and Psychiatry30(2) 285–297.

  • Baron-Cohen S. Leslie A. M. & Frith U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”?. Cognition21(1) 37–46.

  • Benson J. E. Sabbagh M. A. Carlson S. M. & Zelazo P. D. (2013). Individual differences in executive functioning predict preschoolers’ improvement from theory-of-mind training. Developmental Psychology49(9) 1615.

  • Birch S. A. & Bloom P. (2003). Children are cursed: An asymmetric bias in mental-state attribution. Psychological Science14(3) 283–286.

  • Birch S. A. & Bloom P. (2007). The curse of knowledge in reasoning about false-beliefs. Psychological Science18(5) 382–386.

  • Biro S. Csibra G. Koos O & Gergely G. (1998). Understanding rational action in infancy. Psychology of Language and Communication1(2) 29–38. Bloom P. & German T. P. (2000). Two reasons to abandon the false-belief task as a test of theory of mind. Cognition77(1) B25–B31.

  • Buttelmann D. Buttelmann F. Carpenter M. Call J. & Tomasello M. (2017). Great apes distinguish true from false-beliefs in an interactive helping task. PLoS one12(4) e0173793.

  • Buttelmann D. Carpenter M. & Tomasello M. (2009). Eighteen-month-old infants show false-belief understanding in an active helping paradigm. Cognition112(2) 337–342.

  • Buttelmann D. Over H. Carpenter M. & Tomasello M. (2014). Eighteen-month-olds understand false-beliefs in an unexpected-contents task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology119 120–126.

  • Buttelmann F. Suhrke J. & Buttelmann D. (2015). What you get is what you believe: Eighteen-month-olds demonstrate belief understanding in an unexpected-identity task. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology131 94–103.

  • Carruthers P. (2017). Mindreading in adults: evaluating two-systems views. Synthese194(3) 673–688.

  • Carter C. S. & Van Veen V. (2007). Anterior cingulate cortex and conflict detection: an update of theory and data. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience7(4) 367-379.

  • Charman T. Swettenham J. Baron-Cohen S. Cox A. Baird G. & Drew A. (1997). Infants with autism: An investigation of empathy pretend play joint attention and imitation. Developmental Psychology33(5) 781.

  • Clements W. A. & Perner J. (1994). Implicit understanding of belief. Cognitive Development9(4) 377–395.

  • Csibra G. & Gergely G. (1998). The teleological origins of mentalistic action explanations: A developmental hypothesis. Developmental Science1(2) 255–259.

  • Dennett D. C. (1978). Beliefs about beliefs [P&W SR&B]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences1(4) 568–570.

  • de Villiers J. G. & de Villiers P. A. (2000). Linguistic determinism and the understanding of false. Children’s Reasoning and the Mind (Eds.) P. Mitchell and K. Riggs (Hove: Psychology Press) 191–228.

  • de Villiers J. G. & Pyers J. E. (2002). Complements to cognition: A longitudinal study of the relationship between complex syntax and false-belief-understanding. Cognitive Development17(1) 1037–1060.

  • Devine R. T. & Hughes C. (2014). Relations between false-belief understanding and executive function in early childhood: A meta-analysis. Child Development85(5) 1777–1794.

  • Drayton L. A. & Santos L. R. (2018). What do monkeys know about others’ knowledge?. Cognition170 201–208.

  • Farrar M. J. Benigno J. P. Tompkins V. & Gage N. A. (2017). Are there different pathways to explicit false-belief understanding? General language and complementation in typical and atypical children. Cognitive Development43 49–66.

  • Flavell J. H. (1992). Perspectives on perspective-taking. Piaget’s theory: Prospects and possibilities. (pp. 107–139). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum

  • Flavell J. H. (1993). The development of children’s understanding of false-belief and the appearance-reality distinction. International Journal of Psychology28(5) 595–604.

  • Fletcher P. C. Happe F. Frith U. Baker S. C. Dolan R. J. Frackowiak R. S. & Frith C. D. (1995). Other minds in the brain: a functional imaging study of “theory of mind” in story comprehension. Cognition57(2) 109–128.

  • Gallagher H. L. & Frith C. D. (2003). Functional imaging of ‘theory of mind’. Trends in Cognitive Sciences7(2) 77–83.

  • Gallagher S. & Povinelli D. J. (2012). Enactive and behavioral abstraction accounts of social understanding in chimpanzees infants and adults. Review of Philosophy and Psychology3(1) 145–169.

  • Gergely G. Nádasdy Z. Csibra G. & Bíró S. (1995). Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Cognition56(2) 165–193.

  • Grosse Wiesmann C. Friederici A. D. Disla D. Steinbeis N. & Singer T. (2018). Longitudinal evidence for 4-year-olds’ but not 2-and 3-year-olds’ false-belief-related action anticipation. Cognitive Development46 58–68.

  • Grosse Wiesmann C. Friederici A. D. Singer T. & Steinbeis N. (2017). Implicit and explicit false-belief development in preschool children. Developmental Science20(5).

  • Grosse Wiesmann C. Schreiber J. Singer T. Steinbeis N. & Friederici A. D. (2017). White matter maturation is associated with the emergence of theory of mind in early childhood. Nature Communications8 14692.

  • Gut A. Haman M. & Gorbaniuk O. (under review) The development of understanding opacity in preschoolers: A transition from a coarse- to fine-grained understanding of beliefs.

  • Gweon H. Dodell-Feder D. Bedny M. & Saxe R. (2012). Theory of mind performance in children correlates with functional specialization of a brain region for thinking about thoughts. Child development83(6) 1853–1868.

  • Helming K. A. Strickland B. & Jacob P. (2014). Making sense of early false-belief understanding. Trends in Cognitive Sciences18(4) 167–170.

  • Helming K. A. Strickland B. & Jacob P. (2016). Solving the puzzle about early belief-ascription. Mind & Language31(4) 438–469.

  • Henry J. D. Phillips L. H. Ruffman T. & Bailey P. E. (2013). A meta-analytic review of age differences in theory of mind. Psychology and Aging28(3) 826.

  • Heyes C. (2014a). False-belief in infancy: a fresh look. Developmental Science17(5) 647–659.

  • Heyes C. (2014b). Submentalizing: I am not really reading your mind. Perspectives on Psychological Science9(2) 131–143.

  • Hoehl S. Wiese L. & Striano T. (2008). Young infants’ neural processing of objects is affected by eye gaze direction and emotional expression. PLoS One3(6) e2389.

  • Hood B. M. Willen J. D. & Driver J. (1998). Adult’s eyes trigger shifts of visual attention in human infants. Psychological Science9(2) 131–134.

  • Hughes C. & Leekam S. (2004). What are the links between theory of mind and social relations? Review reflections and new directions for studies of typical and atypical development. Social Development13(4) 590–619.

  • Hyde D. C. Aparicio Betancourt M. & Simon C. E. (2015). Human temporal- parietal junction spontaneously tracks others' beliefs: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. Human Brain Mapping36(12) 4831–4846.

  • Hyde D. C. Simon C. E. Ting F. & Nikolaeva J. I. (2018). Functional Organization of the Temporal–Parietal Junction for Theory of Mind in Preverbal Infants: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study. Journal of Neuroscience38(18) 4264–4274.

  • Jacoby N. Bruneau E. Koster-Hale J. & Saxe R. (2016). Localizing pain matrix and theory of mind networks with both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. NeuroImage126 39–48.

  • Jenkins J. M. & Astington J. W. (2000). Theory of mind and social behavior: Causal models tested in a longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-) 203–220.

  • Kampis D. Fogd D. & Kovács Á. M. (2017). Nonverbal components of Theory of Mind in typical and atypical development. Infant Behavior and Development48 54–62.

  • Kovács Á. M. Kühn S. Gergely G. Csibra G. & Brass M. (2014). Are all beliefs equal? Implicit belief attributions recruiting core brain regions of theory of mind. PloS one9(9) e106558.

  • Kovács Á. M. Téglás E. & Endress A. D. (2010). The social sense: Susceptibility to others’ beliefs in human infants and adults. Science330(6012) 1830–1834.

  • El Kaddouri R. Bardi L. De Bremaeker D. Brass M. & Wiersema J. R. (2019). Measuring spontaneous mentalizing with a ball detection task: putting the attention-check hypothesis by Phillips and colleagues (2015) to the test. Psychological Research 1–9.

  • Krupenye C. Kano F. Hirata S. Call J. & Tomasello M. (2016). Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false-beliefs. Science354(6308) 110–114.

  • Krupenye C. Kano F. Hirata S. Call J. & Tomasello M. (2017). A test of the submentalizing hypothesis: Apes’ performance in a false-belief task inanimate control. Communicative & Integrative Biology10(4) e1343771.

  • Kuhn D. (2000). Theory of mind metacognition and reasoning: A life-span perspective. In P. Mitchell & K. J. Riggs (Eds.) Children’s reasoning and the mind (pp. 301–326). Hove: Psychology Press.

  • Kulke L. & Rakoczy H. (2018). Implicit theory of mind – An overview of current replications and non-replications. Data in Brief16 101–104.

  • Kulke L. Reiß M. Krist H. & Rakoczy H. (2018). How robust are anticipatory looking measures of theory of mind? Replication attempts across the life span. Cognitive Development46 97–111.

  • Kulke L. von Duhn B. Schneider D. & Rakoczy H. (2018). Is implicit theory of mind a real and robust phenomenon? Results from a systematic replication study. Psychological Science 0956797617747090.

  • Lackner C. Sabbagh M. A. Hallinan E. Liu X. & Holden J. J. (2012). Dopamine receptor D4 gene variation predicts preschoolers’ developing theory of mind. Developmental Science15(2) 272–280.

  • Lackner C. L. Bowman L. C. & Sabbagh M. A. (2010). Dopaminergic functioning and preschoolers’ theory of mind. Neuropsychologia48(6) 1767–1774.

  • Leslie A. M. Xu F. Tremoulet P. D. & Scholl B. J. (1998). Indexing and the object concept: developingwhat’andwhere’systems. Trends in Cognitive Sciences2(1) 10–18.

  • Lillard A. (1998). Ethnopsychologies: cultural variations in theories of mind. Psychological Bulletin123(1) 3.

  • Low J. (2010). Preschoolers’ implicit and explicit false-belief understanding: relations with complex syntactical mastery. Child Development81(2) 597–615

  • Low J. Apperly I. A. Butterfill S. A. & Rakoczy H. (2016). Cognitive architecture of reasoning in children and adults: A primer on the two-systems account. Child Development Perspectives10(3) 184-189.

  • Mars R. B. Neubert F. X. Noonan M. P. Sallet J. Toni I. & Rushworth M. F. (2012). On the relationship between the “default mode network” and the “social brain”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience6 189.

  • Meert G. Wang J. & Samson D. (2017). Efficient belief tracking in adults: The role of task instruction low-level associative processes and dispositional social functioning. Cognition168 91–98.

  • Meltzoff A. N. (1993). The role of imitation in understanding persons and developing a theory of mind. Understanding other minds: Perspectives from Autism 335–366.

  • Moran J. M. Young L. L. Saxe R. Lee S. M. O’Young D. Mavros P. L. & Gabrieli J. D. (2011). Impaired theory of mind for moral judgment in high-functioning autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences108(7) 2688–2692.

  • Moses L. J. (2001). Executive accounts of theory-of-mind development. Child Development72(3) 688–690.

  • Naughtin C. K. Horne K. Schneider D. Venini D. York A. & Dux P. E. (2017). Do implicit and explicit belief processing share neural substrates? Human Brain Mapping38(9) 4760–4772.

  • Nelson K. (1998). Language in cognitive development: The emergence of the mediated mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Nelson K. Plesa D. & Henseler S. (1998). Children’s theory of mind: An experiential interpretation. Human Development41(1) 7–29.

  • Nijhof A. D. Brass M. Bardi L. & Wiersema J. R. (2016). Measuring mentalizing ability: A within-subject comparison between an explicit and implicit version of a ball detection task. PloS one11(10): e0164373. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164373

  • Nijhof A. D. Bardi L. Brass M. & Wiersema J. R. (2018). Brain activity for spontaneous and explicit mentalizing in adults with autism spectrum disorder: An fMRI study. NeuroImage: Clinical18 475–484.

  • Oktay-Gür N. Schulz A. & Rakoczy H. (2018). Children exhibit different performance patterns in explicit and implicit theory of mind tasks. Cognition173 60–74.

  • Onishi K. H. & Baillargeon R. (2005). Do 15-month-old infants understand false-beliefs? Science308(5719) 255–258.

  • Peterson C. Slaughter V. Moore C. & Wellman H. M. (2016). Peer social skills and theory of mind in children with autism deafness or typical development. Developmental Psychology52(1) 46.

  • Peterson C. C. Slaughter V. P. & Paynter J. (2007). Social maturity and theory of mind in typically developing children and those on the autism spectrum. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry48(12) 1243–1250.

  • Phillips J. Ong D. C. Surtees A. D. Xin Y. Williams S. Saxe R. & Frank M. C. (2015). A second look at automatic theory of mind: Reconsidering Kovács Téglás and Endress (2010). Psychological Science26(9) 1353–1367.

  • Poulin-Dubois D. & Yott J. (2018). Probing the depth of infants’ theory of mind: Disunity in performance across paradigms. Developmental Science21(4) e12600.

  • Premack D. (1990). The infant’s theory of self-propelled objects. Cognition36(1) 1–16.

  • Premack D. & Woodruff G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences1(4) 515–526.

  • Priewasser B. Rafetseder E. Gargitter C. & Perner J. (2017). Helping as an early indicator of a theory of mind: Mentalism or teleology?. Cognitive Development46 69–78. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.08.002

  • Rabinowitz N. C. Perbet F. Song H. F. Zhang C. Eslami S. M. & Botvinick M. (2018). Machine theory of mind. arXiv preprint arXiv:1802.07740.

  • Richardson H. Lisandrelli G. Riobueno-Naylor A. & Saxe R. (2018). Development of the social brain from age three to twelve years. Nature Communications9(1) 1027.

  • Rubio-Fernández P. & Geurts B. (2013). How to pass the false-belief task before your fourth birthday. Psychological Science24(1) 27–33.

  • Rubio-Fernández P. Jara-Ettinger J. & Gibson E. (2017). Can processing demands explain toddlers’ performance in false-belief tasks?. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114(19) E3750–E3750.

  • Sabbagh M. A. Bowman L. C. Evraire L. E. & Ito J. (2009). Neurodevelopmental correlates of theory of mind in preschool children. Child Development80(4) 1147–1162.

  • Samson D. Apperly I. Braithwaite J. Andrews B. & Bodley Scott S. (2010). Seeing it their way: Evidence for rapid and involuntary computation of what other people see. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance36 1255–1266.

  • Schaafsma S. M. Pfaff D. W. Spunt R. P. & Adolphs R. (2015). Deconstructing and reconstructing theory of mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences19(2) 65–72.

  • Scheeren A. M. de Rosnay M. Koot H. M. & Begeer S. (2013). Rethinking theory of mind in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry54(6) 628–635.

  • Schick B. de Villiers P. de Villiers J. & Hoffmeister R. (2007). Language and theory of mind: A study of deaf children. Child Development78(2) 376–396.

  • Schneider D. Lam R. Bayliss A. P. & Dux P. E. (2012). Cognitive load disrupts implicit theory-of-mind processing. Psychological Science23(8) 842–847.

  • Schneider D. Slaughter V. P. Becker S. I. & Dux P. E. (2014). Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain. NeuroImage101 268–275.

  • Schneider D. Nott Z. E. & Dux P. E. (2014). Task instructions and implicit theory of mind. Cognition133 43–47.

  • Schurz M. Radua J. Aichhorn M. Richlan F. & Perner J. (2014). Fractionating theory of mind: A meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews42 9–34.

  • Schurz M. Tholen M. G. Perner J. Mars R. B. & Sallet J. (2017). Specifying the brain anatomy underlying temporo-parietal junction activations for theory of mind: A review using probabilistic atlases from different imaging modalities. Human Brain Mapping38(9) 4788–4805.

  • Schuwerk T. Vuori M. & Sodian B. (2015). Implicit and explicit theory of mind reasoning in autism spectrum disorders: The impact of experience. Autism 19(4) 459–468.

  • Scott R. M. (2014). Post hoc versus predictive accounts of children’s theory of mind: A reply to Ruffman. Developmental Review34(3) 300–304.

  • Scott R. M. & Baillargeon R. (2009). Which penguin is this? Attributing false beliefs about object identity at 18 months. Child Development80(4) 1172–1196.

  • Scott R. M. & Baillargeon R. (2017). Early false-belief understanding. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21(4) 237–249.

  • Shahaeian A. Peterson C. C. Slaughter V. & Wellman H. M. (2011). Culture and the sequence of steps in theory of mind development. Developmental Psychology47(5) 1239.

  • Slaughter V. (2015). Theory of mind in infants and young children: a review. Australian Psychologist50(3) 169–172.

  • Sodian B. (2016). Is false-belief understanding continuous from infancy to preschool age? In D. Barner & A. S. Baron (Eds.) Core knowledge and conceptual change (p. 301) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Sommerville J. A. Bernstein D. M. & Meltzoff A. N. (2013). Measuring beliefs in centimeters: Private knowledge biases preschoolers’ and adults’ representation of others’ beliefs. Child Development84(6) 1846–1854.

  • Southgate V. (2018). The puzzle of early mentalizing: A unitary theory of infants’ successes and preschoolers’ failures. doi:10.17605/OSF.IO/Y2GHQ

  • Spreng R. N. & Grady C. L. (2010). Patterns of brain activity supporting autobiographical memory prospection and theory of mind and their relationship to the default mode network. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience22(6) 1112–1123.

  • Stojnić G. (2017). Can two-year olds understand others’ false-beliefs about object identities? (Doctoral dissertation Rutgers University-Graduate School-New Brunswick).

  • Stojnić G. & Leslie A. M. (2018). Poster presented at 9th Budapest Conference on Cognitive Development Budapest January 2018.

  • Thoermer C. Sodian B. Vuori M. Perst H. & Kristen S. (2012). Continuity from an implicit to an explicit understanding of false-belief from infancy to preschool age. British Journal of Developmental Psychology30(1) 172–187.

  • Tomasello M. (1995). Joint attention as social cognition. Joint Attention: Its Origins and Role in Development 103–130.

  • Tomasello M. (2018). How children come to understand false-beliefs: A shared intentionality account. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115(34) 8491–8498.

  • Wang L. & Leslie A. M. (2016). Is Implicit Theory of Mind the ‘Real Deal’? The Own-Belief/True-Belief Default in Adults and Young Preschoolers. Mind & Language31(2) 147–176.

  • Wellman H. M. (2014). Making minds: How theory of mind develops. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Wellman H. M. (2017). The development of theory of mind: Historical reflections. Child Development Perspectives11(3) 207–214.

  • Wellman H. M. & Liu D. (2004). Scaling of theory-of-mind tasks. Child Development75(2) 523–541.

  • Wellman H. M. & Woolley J. D. (1990). From simple desires to ordinary beliefs: The early development of everyday psychology. Cognition35 245–275.

  • Wellman H. M. Fang F. & Peterson C. C. (2011). Sequential progressions in a theory-of-mind scale: Longitudinal perspectives. Child Development82(3) 780–792.

  • Wimmer H. & Perner J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition13(1) 103–128.

  • Yott J. & Poulin-Dubois D. (2016). Are infants’ theory-of-mind abilities well integrated? Implicit understanding of intentions desires and beliefs. Journal of Cognition and Development17(5) 683–698.

  • Zaitchik D. (1990). When representations conflict with reality: The preschooler’s problem with false-beliefs and “false” photographs. Cognition35(1) 41–68.

  • Zelazo P. D. Carlson S. M. & Kesek A. (2008). The development of executive function in childhood. In C. A. Nelson & M. Luciana (Eds.) Developmental cognitive neuroscience. Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience (pp. 553–574). Cambridge MA US: MIT Pres

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.29

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.118
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.410

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 74 74 9
PDF Downloads 39 39 9