It has been defended since Gibbs (1994) that in proper contexts people mostly use the metaphorical asset of a message rather than its literal meaning, which means that we tend to express ourselves metaphorically and that conceptual metaphors and metonymies are features of communicative interaction. In the present paper we discuss the notion of metaphorical competence (Aleshtar & Dowlatabadi, 2014: 1895) in the process of language acquisition and learning of a (multilingual) speaker in a multilingual context. Based on previous studies by Sinha and Jansen (2004), Kövecses (2005), Palmer & Sharifian (2007), Gibbs & Colston (2012) and Sharifian (2015), among others, we postulate that research in the area should be centred not exclusively on Language but on interaction in a triangle Cognition - Language - Culture, We defend the way one conceptualises the world is based on bodily experience, and is mediated by culture (cf. Yu, 2003, 2009; Batoréo, 2017a). In this study we present research from different language backgrounds both occidental (European Portuguese, English and Polish) and oriental ones (Mandarin Chinese). It focuses on conceptualization of emotions (e.g., emotional expression of feeling hungry) and moral values (e.g. courage). The analysis shows that it implies culture anchorage and/or physiological and cultural embodiment. We defend that conceptual appropriateness and metaphor awareness play a fundamental role in the acquisition of figurative language (cf. Doiz & Elizari, 2013), which is at least partially motivated, and thus can be object of insightful learning (cf. Boers et al., 2004).
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Aleshtar M. T. and Dowlatabadi H. (2014). Metaforic competence and language proficiency in the same boat. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 98 1895-1904.
Batoréo H. (2015). Competência metafórica e linguística cultural: Exemplo de conceptualização de emoções em Chinês e na cultura ocidental (Metaphorical competence and cultural linguistics: Exemples of conceptualizing emotions in Chinese and occidental cultures). Revista Investigações Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 28(2) 1-28.
Batoréo H. (2017a). On ironic puns in Portuguese authentic oral data. In. A. Athanasiadou & Colston H. (Eds.) Irony in language use and communication. John Benjamins.
Batoréo H. (2017b). Metaphorical competence in multilingual context of language acquisition and learning. Ms. Presented at: ICMME 2017 - International Conference on Multilingualism and Multilingual Education University of Minho Braga 11-13 May 2017.
Batoréo H. (2017c). Metaphorical competence and cultural linguistics: Why is it important for a multilingual speaker to be conceptually appropriate while expressing emotions in different languages? Ms. Presented at: Rhetoric Discourse and the Communicative-Dialogical Mind Lisbon Faculdade de Letras da Uiniversidade de Lisboa 7-9 June 2017.
Boers F. (2001). Remembering figurative idioms by hypothesising about their origin. Prospect 16(3) 5-43.
Boers F. Demecheleer M. & Eyckmans J. (2004). Etymological elaboration as a strategy for learning idioms. In P. Bogaards & B. Laufer (Eds.) Vocabulary in a second language (pp. 53-77). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Boers F. Eyckmans J. & Stengers H. (2007). Presenting figurative idioms with a touch of etymology: more than mere mnemonics? Language Teaching Research 11(1) 43-62.
Clark J. M. and Paivio A. 1991: Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review 3 233-62.
Croft W. & Cruise D. A. (2004). Cognitive linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dancyngier B. & Sweetser E. (2015). Figurative language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Danesi M. (1992). Metaphorical competence in second language acquisition and second language teaching: The neglected dimension. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.) Georgetown University round table on languages and linguistics (pp. 125- 136). Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Danesi M. (1993). Metaphorical competence in second language acquisition and second language teaching: The neglected dimension. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.) Language communication and social meaning (pp. 489-500). Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
Danesi M. (1995). Learning and teaching languages: the role of conceptual fluency. Applied Linguistics 5(1) 3-20.
Doiz A. & Elizari C. (2013). Metaphoric competence and the acquisition of figurative vocabular in foreign language. ELIA - Estudios de Linguística Inglesa Aplicada 13 47-82.
Gibbs R. W. (1994). The poetics of mind: Figurative language thought and understanding. New York NY: Cambridge University Press.
Gibbs R. W. (Ed.). (2008). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gibbs R. W. & Colston H. (2012). Interpreting figurative meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kövecses Z. (1990). Emotion concepts. Springer-Verlag.
Kövecses Z. (2005). Metaphor in culture: Universality and variation. Cambridge: CUP.
Lakoff G. (1987). Women fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago IL: Chicago University Press.
Lakoff G. & Johnson M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ots T. (1990). The angry liver the anxious heart and the melancholy spleen. Culture Medicine and Psychiatry 14(1). 21-58.
Palmer G. & Sharifian F. (2007). Applied cultural linguistics: An emerging paradigm”. In: F. Sharifian & G. Palmer (Eds.). (2007). Applied cultural lingusitics: Implications for second language learning and intercultural communication (pp. 1-14) Amsterdam/Philadelphia : John Benjamins.
Sharifian F. (2011). Cultural linguistics. Inaugural Professoral Lecture Professor Farzad Sharafian School of Language Cultures and Linguistics Language and Society Centre Monash University. http://monash.academia.edu/ProfessorFarzadSharifian/Papers/611702/Cultural_Linguistics_Farzad_Sharifians_Inaugural_Professorial_Lecture
Sharifian F. (2015). Cultural Linguistics. In F. Sharifan (Ed.) The Routledge handbook of language and culture (pp. 473-493). Oxford: Routledge.
Sharifian F. & Palmer G. B. (Eds.). (2007). Applied cultural linguistics: Implications for second language learning and intercultural communication. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Sharifian F. Dirven R. Yu N. & Neiemier S. (Eds.). (2008). Culture body and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Shirazi M. G. & M. R. Talebinezhad (2013). Developing intermediate EFL learners metaphorical competence through exposure. Theory and Practice in Language Studies 3(1) 135-141.
Sinha Ch. & Jensen de López K. (2004). Language culture and the embodiment of spatial cognition. Cognitive Linguistics 11 17-41.
Yu N. (1995). Metaphorical expressions of anger and happiness in English and Chinese. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 10(2) 59-92.
Yu N. (1998). The contemporary theory of metaphor: a perspective from Chinese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Yu N. (2003). Metaphor body and culture: The Chinese understanding of gallbladder and courage. Metaphor and Symbol 18(1) 13-31.
Yu N. (2007). The Chinese conceptualization of the heart and its cultural contexto. Implications for second language learning. In F. Sharifian & G. B. Palmer (Eds.) Applied cultural linguistics: Implications for second language learning and intercultural communication (pp. 65-86). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Yu N. (2008a) Metaphor from body and culture. In R. W. Gibbs Jr. (Ed.) The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought (pp. 247-261). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yu N. (2008b). The Chinese heart as the central faculty of cognition. In F. Sharifian R. Dirven N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.) Culture body and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp. 131-168). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
Yu N. (2009). From body to meaning in culture. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.