Analysis of Verbal Fluency Output on Semantic Categories of ‘Food’ and ‘Vehicle’ in Typically Developing Malayalam Speaking Children

Open access

Abstract

In the wake of limited knowledge on verbal fluency performance in typically developing children, the present study aims at investigating the semantic fluency performance of Malayalam speaking children across age, gender and tasks. Using a cross-sectional study design, semantic fluency performance (on food and vehicle fluency tasks) was investigated in 1015 Malayalam speaking typically developing children aged 5 to 15 years. The findings revealed the positive influence of age and task with no substantial difference between gender groups, with good inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. The study outcomes depicted a distinct pattern of continuous and linear developmental trend in organizational strategies, with no specific age band showing any dramatic increase in performance. Semantic fluency as a task has great potential within the developmental context for understanding the highly language, culture, and task based word retrieval mechanism.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abwender D. A. Swan J. G. Bowerman J. T. & Connolly S. W. (2001). Qualitative analysis of verbal fluency output: Review and comparison of several scoring methods. Assessment I(3) 323-338. doi: 10.1177/107319110100800308

  • Antonucci S. M. Beeson P. M. Labiner D. M. & Rapcsak S. Z. (2008). Lexical retrieval and semantic knowledge in patients with left inferior temporal lobe lesions. Aphasiology 22(3) 281-304. doi: 10.1080/02687030701294491

  • Baldo J. V. & Shimamura A. P. (1998). Letter and category fluency in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychology 12(2) 259-267. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105.12.2.259

  • Bayles K. A. Salmon D. P. Tomoeda C. K. Jacobs D. Caffrey J. T. Kaszniak A. W. & Troster A. I. (1989). Semantic and letter category naming in Alzheimer's patients: A predictable difference. Developmental Neuropsychology 5(4) 335-347. doi: 10.1080/87565648909540443

  • Blaye A. & Bonthoux F. (2001). Thematic and taxonomic relations in preschoolers: The development of flexibility in categorization choices. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 19(3) 395-412. doi: 10.1348/026151001166173

  • Brocki K. C. & Bohlin G. (2004). Executive functions in children aged 6 to 13: A dimensional and developmental study. Developmental Neuropsychology 26(2) 571-593. doi: 10.1207/s15326942dn2602_3

  • Capitani E. Laiacona M. & Barbarotto R. (1999). Gender affects word retrieval of certain categories in semantic fluency tasks. Cortex 35(2) 273-278. doi: 10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70800-1

  • Chan A. S. & Poon M. W. (1999). Performance of 7- to 95-year-old individuals in a Chinese version of the category fluency test. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 5(6) 525-533.

  • Charchat-Fichman H. Oliveira R. M. & da Silva A. M. (2011). Performance of Brazilian children on phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks. Dementia and Neuropsychologia 5(2) 78-84. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ S1980-57642011DN05020004

  • Collins A. M. & Loftus E. F. (1975). A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review 82(6) 407-428. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.82.6.407

  • Crowe S. J & Prescott T.J. (2003). Continuity and change in the development of category structure: Insights from the semantic fluency task. International Journal of Behavioral Development 27(5) 467-479. doi: 10.1080/01650250344000091

  • de Jager C. A. Thambisetty M. Praveen K. V. Sheeba P. D. Ajini K. N. Sajeev A. ... & David S. A. (2008). Utility of the Malayalam translation of the 7- minute screen for Alzheimer‘s disease risk in an Indian community. Neurology India 56(2) 161-166.

  • Fenson L. Vella D. & Kennedy M. (1989). Children‘s knowledge of thematic and taxonomic relations at two years of age. Child Development 60(4) 911-919.

  • Filippetti V. A. & Allegri R. F. (2011). Verbal fluency in Spanish-speaking children: analysis model according to task type clustering and switching strategies and performance over time. The Clinical Neuropsychologist 25(3) 413-436. doi: 10.1080/13854046.2011.559481

  • Goldberg R. F. Perfetti C. A. & Schneider W. (2006). Distinct and common cortical activations for multimodal semantic categories. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 6(3) 214-222.

  • Grube D. & Hasselhorn M. (1996). Children‘s freelisting of animal terms: Developmental changes in activating categorical knowledge. Zeitschrift Fur Psychologie 204(2) 119-134.

  • Halperin J. M. Healey J. M. Zeitchik E. Ludman W. L. & Weinstein L. (1989). Developmental aspects of linguistic and mnestic abilities in normal children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 11(4) 518-528. doi: 10.1080/01688638908400910

  • Huff F. J. Corkin S. & Growdon J. H. (1986). Semantic impairment and anomia in Alzheimer's disease. Brain and Language 28(2) 235-249.

  • Hurks P. P. M. Schrans D. Meijs C. Wassenberg R. Feron F. J. M. & Jolles J. (2010). Developmental changes in semantic verbal fluency: Analyses of word productivity as a function of time clustering and switching. Child Neuropsychology 16(4) 366-387. doi: 10.1080/09297 041003671184

  • John S. & Rajashekhar B. (2014). Word retrieval ability on semantic fluency task in typically developing Malayalam-speaking children. Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence 20(2) 182-195. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2012. 760538.

  • Kave G. (2005). Phonemic fluency semantic fluency and difference scores: Normative data for adult Hebrew speakers. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 27(6) 690-699. doi: 10.1080/1380339 0490918499

  • Kave G. Kigel S. & Kochva R. (2008). Switching and clustering in verbal fluency tasks throughout childhood. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 30(3) 349-359. doi: 10.1080/1380339 0701416197

  • Koren R. Kofman O. & Berger A. (2005). Analysis of word clustering in verbal fluency of school-aged children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 20(8) 1087-1104. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2005.06.012

  • Kosmidis M. H. Vlahou C. H. Panagiotaki P. & Kiosseoglou G. (2004). The verbal fluency task in the Greek population: normative data and clustering and switching strategies. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 10(2) 164-172. doi: 10.1017/S1355617 704102014

  • Lezak M. (1995). Neuropsychological Assessment (3rd ed.). New York NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Lipowska M. Bogdanowicz M. & Bulinski L. (2008). Language skills in children with ADHD and developmental dyslexia. Acta Neuropsychologica 6(4) 369-379.

  • Lucariello J. Kyratzis A. & Nelson K. (1992). Taxonomic knowledge: What kind and when? Child Development 63(4) 978-998.

  • Mandler J. M. (1979). Categorical and schematic organization in memory. In C. Puff (Ed.) Memory Organization and Structure (pp. 259-302). New York NY: Academic Press.

  • Martin A. & Fedio P. (1983). Word production and comprehension in Alzheimer‘s disease: The breakdown of semantic knowledge. Brain and Language 19(1) 124-141.

  • Mathuranath P. S. George A. Cherian P. J. Alexander A. Sarma S. G. & Sarma P. S. (2003). Effects of age education and gender on verbal fluency. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 25(8) 1057-1064. doi: 10.1076/jcen.25.8.1057.16736

  • Mayr U. & Kliegl R. (2000). Complex semantic processing in old age: Does it stay or does it go? Psychology and Aging 15(1) 29-43. doi: 10.1037//0882-7974.15.1.29

  • McDowd J. Hoffman L. Rozek E. Lyons K. E. Pahwa R. Burns J. & Kemper S. (2011). Understanding verbal fluency in healthy aging Alzheimer‘s disease and Parkinson‘s disease. Neuropsychology 25(2) 210-225. doi: 10.1037/a0021531

  • Mishra D. & Singh H. P. (2003). Kuppuswamy‘s socioeconomic status scale - A revision. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 70(3) 273-274.

  • Mitrushina M. Boone K.B. Razani J. & D‘Elia L.F. (2005). Handbook of Normative Data for Neuropsychological Assessment (2nd ed.). New York NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Mummery C. J. Patterson K. Hodges J. R. & Wise R. J. (1996). Generating ―tiger‖ as an animal name or a word beginning with T: Differences in brain activation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 263(1373) 989-995. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1996.0146

  • Nash H. M. & Snowling M. J. (2008). Semantic and phonological fluency in children with Down syndrome: Atypical organization of language or less efficient retrieval strategies? Cognitive Neuropsychology 25(5) 690-703. doi: 10.1080/02643290802274064

  • Nelson K. (1974). Variations in children‘s concepts by age and category. Child Development 45(3) 577-584. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1974. tb00641.x Nelson K. & Nelson A. P. (1990). Category production in response to script and category cues by kindergarten and second-grade children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 11(4) 431-446. doi: 10.1016/0193- 3973(90)90019-G

  • Nguyen S. P. & Murphy G. L. (2003). An Apple is More Than Just a Fruit: Cross-Classification in Children's Concepts. Child Development 74(6) 1783-1806.

  • Raboutet C. Sauzeon H. Corsini M.M. Rodrigues J. Langevin S. & N'Kaoua B. (2010). Performance on a semantic verbal fluency task across time: Dissociation between clustering switching and categorical exploitation processes. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 32(3) 268-280. doi: 10.1080/13803390902984464

  • Riva D. Nichelli F. & Devoti M. (2000). Developmental aspects of verbal fluency and confrontation naming in children. Brain and Language 71(2) 267-284. doi: 10.1006/brln.1999.2166

  • Rosselli M. Tappen R. Williams C. Salvatierra J. & Zoller Y. (2009). Level of education and category fluency task among Spanish speaking elders: Number of words clustering and switching strategies. Neuropsychology Development and Cognition. Section B Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition 16(6) 721-744. doi: 10.1080/13825580902912739

  • Rosser A. E & Hodges J. R. (1994). Initial letter and semantic category fluency in Alzheimer‘s disease Huntington's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry I(11) 1389-1394. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.57.11.1389

  • Sauzeon H. Lestage P. Raboutet C. N'Kaoua B. & Claverie B. (2004). Verbal fluency output in children aged 7-16 as a function of the production criterion: Qualitative analysis of clustering switching processes and semantic network exploitation. Brain and Language 89(1) 192-202. doi: 10.1016/ S0093-934X(03)00367-5

  • Schwartz S. Baldo J. Graves R. E. & Brugger P. (2003). Pervasive influence of semantics in letter and category fluency: A multidimensional approach. Brain and Language 87(3) 400-411.

  • Smiley S. S. & Brown A. L. (1979). Conceptual preference for thematic or taxonomic relations: A nonmonotonic age trend from preschool to old age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 28(2) 249-257.

  • Smith E. E. Shoben E. J. & Rips L. J. (1974). Structure and process in semantic memory: A featural model for semantic decisions. Psychological Review 81(3) 214-241.

  • Snyder H. R. & Munakata Y. (2010). Becoming self-directed: Abstract representations support endogenous flexibility in children. Cognition 116(2) 155-167. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.04.007

  • Spreen O. & Risser A. H. (2002). Assessment of Aphasia. New York NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Spreen O. & Strauss E. A. (1998). A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration Norms and Commentary: Administration Norms and Commentary (2nd ed.). New York NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Storm C. (1980). The semantic structure of animal terms: A developmental study. International Journal of Behavioral Development 3 381-407.

  • Strauss E. Sherman E.M.S. & Spreen O. (2006). A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration Norms and Commentary: Administration Norms and Commentary (3rd ed.). New York NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Tallberg I. M. Carlsson S. & Lieberman M. (2011). Children‘s word fluency strategies. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 52(1) 35-42. doi: 10.1111/ j.1467-9450.2010.00842.x

  • Tombaugh T. N. Kozak J. & Rees L. (1999). Normative data stratified by age and education for two measures of verbal fluency: FAS and animal naming. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 14(2) 167-177. doi: 10.1093/ arclin/14.2.167

  • Troster A. I. Salmon D. P. McCullough D. & Butters N. (1989). A comparison of the category fluency deficits associated with Alzheimer‘s and Huntington's disease. Brain and Language 37(3) 500-513. doi: 10.1016/0093-934X(89)90032-1

  • Troyer A. K. (2000). Normative data for clustering and switching on verbal fluency tasks. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 22(3) 370-378. doi: 10.1076/1380-3395(200006)22:3;1-V;FT370

  • Troyer A. K. Moscovitch M. & Winocur G. (1997). Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: Evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology 11(1) 138-146. doi: 10.1037/0894-4105. 11.1.138

  • Vitali P. Abutalebi J. Tettamanti M. Rowe J. Scifo P. Fazio F. ... & Perani D. (2005). Generating animal and tool names: An fMRI study of effective connectivity. Brain and Language 93(1) 32-45. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2004.08.005.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.29

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.118
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.410

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 282 230 12
PDF Downloads 274 243 34