Validity and Reliability of the Polish Adaptation of the Ruff Figural Fluency Test

Open access


Normative studies of the Polish adaptation of Th e Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were conducted on 475 men and women aged 16-79, taking into consideration such factors as gender, education, and place of residence. Clinical studies were also performed on a group of patients with left -, right-, or bilateral hemispheric brain lesions, Parkinson’s disease, Huntingon’s disease, progressive obturational lung disease, dementia and depression. Th e results support the utility of the RFFT as a measure of executive functions. Th e validity and reliability indices of the Polish version of the test are similar to those reported by Ruff (1996). However, the sample Polish test performance differs notably from American samples performance and this difference is discussed.

Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (1999). Testy psychologiczne (Psychological Tests). Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Berning, L.C., Weed, N.C., & Aloia, M.S. (1998). Interrater reliability of the Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Assessment, 5 (2), 181-186.

Borkowski, J., Benton, A., & Spreen, O. (1967). Word fl uency and brain damage. Neuropsychologia, 5 (2), 135-140.

Bornstein, R.A. (1983). Verbal Concept Attainment Test: Cross-validation and validation of a booklet form. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39 (5), 743-745.

Brzeziński, J. (1984). Wybrane zagadnienia z psychometrii i diagnostyki psychologicznej [Selected Issues in Psychometrics and Psychological Diagnostics]. Poznan: UAM.

Brzeziński, J., Gaul, M., Hornowska, E., Jaworowska, A., Machowski, A., & Zakrzewska, M. (2004). Skala Inteligencji D. Wechslera dla Dorosłych. Wersja Zrewidowana - renormalizacja WAIS-R(PL) [The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised. Re-Normalisation of the WAIS-R(PL)]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Christensen, H., MacKinnon, A.J., Lorten, A.E., Jorm, A.F., Henderson, A.S., Jacomb, P., & Rodgers, B. (1999). An analysis of diversity in the cognitive performance of olderly community dwellers: Individual diff erences in change scores as a function of age. Psychological Aging, 14 (3), 365-379.

Delis, D.C., Kramer, J.H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B.A. (1987). California Verbal Learning Test CVLT. Research Edition. Adult Version. Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Fama, R., Sullivan, E.V., Shear, P.K., Cahn-Weiner, D.A., Yesavage, J.A., Tinklenberg, J.R., & Pfeff erbaum, A. (1998). Fluency Performance Patterns in Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 12 (4), 487-499.

Fernandez, A.L., & Marcopulos, B. (2008). A comparison of normative data for the Trail Making Test from several countries: Equivalence of norms and considerations for interpretation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49 (3), 239-246.

Goryńska, E. (2005). Przymiotnikowa Skala Nastroju UMACL. Podręcznik [The UMACL Manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Jaworowska, A. (2002). Test Sortowania Kart z Wisconsin. Podręcznik [The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Jaworowska, A. & Szustrowa, T. (2000). Test Matryc Ravena w wersji Standard. Formy: Klasyczna, Równoległa, Plus. Polskie standaryzacje. [The Raven Progressive Matrices - Standard. Classic, Parallel and Plus Forms. Polish Standardisations]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Jones-Gotman, M. & Milner, B. (1977). Design fl uency: The invention of nonsense drawings aft er focal cortical lesions. Neuropsychologia, 15 (4-5), 653-674.

Kądzielawa, D., Mroziak, J., Bolewska, A., & Osiejuk, E. (1990). Podręcznik do Baterii Testów Halsteada-Reitana [The Halstead-Reitan Test Battery Manual]. Warszawa: Wydział Psychologii UW.

Kaufman, A.S., McLean, J.E., & Reynolds, C.R. (1988). Sex, race, residence, region and education diff erences on the 11 WAIS-R subtests. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44 (2), 231-248.

Lancioni, G.E., O’Reilly, M.F., Campodonico, F., & Mantini, M. (2001). Promoting performance fl uency in a person with profound intellectual disability and blindness. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29 (3), 373-377.

Lezak, M.D., Howieson, D.B., Loring, D.W., Hannay, H.J., & Fischer, J.S. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment. Fourth Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Łojek, E. (2001). Neuropsychologia osób zakazonych wirusem HIV i chorych na AIDS [The Neuropsychology of HIV-Infected Individuals and AIDS Patients]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Medyk.

Łojek, E. & Bornstein, R.A. (2005). The stability of neurocognitive patterns in HIV infected men: Classification considerations. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27 (6), 665-682.

Łojek, E. & Stańczak, J. (2005). Test Płynności Figuralnej Ruff a. Polska standaryzacja i normalizacja. Podręcznik [The Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Polish Standarisation and Normalisation]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Łojek, E. & Stańczak, J. (2009). Kalifornijski Test Uczenia się Językowego (CVLT).

Polska normalizacja [The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Polish Normalization]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Matczak, A., Jaworowska, A., Szustrowa, T., & Ciechanowicz, A. (1995). Bateria Testów APIS-Z. Podręcznik [The APIS-Z Test Battery Manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Nęcka, E. (2000). Procesy uwagi [Attention processes]. In J. Strelau (Ed.), Psychologia. Podręcznik akademicki. Psychologia ogólna. Tom 2 [Psychology.

An Academic Textbook. General Psychology. Volume 2] (pp. 77-96). Gdańsk: GWP.

OECD (2004). Learning for Tomorrow’s World - First Results from PISA 2003. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, [15.04.2007].

Regard, M., Strauss, E., Knapp, P. (1982). Children’s production on verbal and non-verbal fl uency tasks. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 55 (3), 839-844.

Rocznik Statystyczny Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej [Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland] (2002). Warszawa: Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych.

Ross, T.P., Foard, E.L., Hiott, F.B., & Vincent, A. (2003). The reliability of production strategy scores for the Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18 (8), 879-891.

Rosselli, M. & Ardila, A. (2003). The impact of culture and education on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements: A critical review. Brain and Cognition, 52 (3), 326-333.

Ruff , R.M. (1996). Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Professional Manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Ruff , R.M., Allen, C.C., Farrow, C.E., Niemann, H., & Wylie, T. (1994). Figural fl uency: Diff erential impairment in patients with left versus right frontal lobe lesions. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 9 (1), 41-55.

Ruff , R.M., Evans, R.W., & Lawrence, F.M. (1986). Impaired verbal and figural fl uency aft er head injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1 (2), 87-101.

Ruff , R.M., Light, R.H., & Evans, R.W. (1987). The Ruff Figural Fluency Test: A normative study with adults. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3 (1), 37-51.

Ruff , R.M., Light, R.H., Parker, S.B., & Levin, H.S. (1997). The psychological construct of word fl uency. Brain and Language, 57 (3), 394-405.

Sabe, L., Jason, L., Juejati, M., Leiguarda, R., & Starkstein, S. (1993). Sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-Mental State Exam in the diagnosis of dementia. Behavioural Neurology, 6 (4), 207-210.

Sands, K.A. (1998). Nonverbal fl uency: A neuropsychometric investigation. Dissertation Abstracts International. Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58 (8-B), 4470.

Schretlen, D.J., Munro, C.A., Anthony, J.C., & Pearlson, G.D. (2003). Examining the range of normal intraindividual variability in neuropsychological test performance. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9 (6), 864-870.

Spreen, O. & Strauss, E. (1998). A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests. Administration, Norms, and Commentary. Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sternberg, R.J., & Wagner, R.K. (Eds.) (1986). Practical Intelligence: Nature and Origins of Competence in the Everyday World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Suchy, Y., Sands, K., & Chelune, G.J. (2003). Verbal and nonverbal fl uency performance before and aft er seizure. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25 (2), 190-200.

Williamson, J.B., & Harrison, D.W. (2003). Functional cerebral asymmetry in hostility: A dual task approach with fl uency and cardiovascular regulation. Brain and Cognition, 52 (2), 167-174.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.34

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.144
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.359


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 64 64 10
PDF Downloads 33 33 4