The present study was aimed at determining bone metabolism related changes in dogs with visseral leishmaniasis such as vitamin D, calcium, phosphate and ALP levels as compared to healthy ones. A total of 40 serums of male dogs aged between 4 and 6 years that were sent to Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Medicine, Parasitology Laboratory from Kuşadasy and Bodrum districts between the years 2012 and 2013, suspected with leishmaniasis, by the veterinary physicians in accordance with the cold chain rules and 20 of which were evaluated as leishmania seropositive and 20 as leishmania seronegative by the IFA test, were included in this study. There was no any statistically significant difference between the serum 25-OH-D3 levels of Leishmania positive and negative dogs (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the serum ALP (p<0.05), and P levels were observed to be higher in the seropositive dogs than in the seronegative dogs, while Ca level was low (p<0.001).
Cortadellas O, Fernandez Del Palacio MJ, Talavera J, Bayon A (2009) Serum phosphorus homeostasis in dogs with spontaneous chronic kidney disease at different stages severity. J Vet Intern Med 24: 73-79.
Cetiner S, Ozturk M, Yucetas S (2001) Determination of serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphate levels after the clinical use of solvent dehydrated allogenic bone implantation in cystic cavites. Hacettepe Diş Hekimliei Fakultesi Dergisi 25: 26-30.
Coskun S, Batmaz H, Aydyn L, Yylmaz F (1997) Seroprevalance of L. infantum infection of dogs in the western part of Turkey. Türkiye Parazitol Derg 21: 287-291.
Desjeux P (2004) Leishmaniasis: Current Situation and New Perspectives. Comp Immunol, Microbiol Infect Dis 27: 305-18.
Dittmer KE, Thompson KG (2011) Vitamin D Metabolism and Rickets in Domestic Animals. Vet Pathol 48: 389-407.
Driel M, Koedam M, Buurman CJ, Hewison M, Chiba H, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, Van Leeuwen JPM (2006) Evidence for auto/paracrine actions of vitamin D in bone: 1-hydroxylase expression and activity inhuman bone cells. FASEB 20.
Ecer S, Dikici B, Hasbolat K (2005) Bone Mineral Metabolism in Chronic Liver Diseases. Dicle Typ Dergisi 32: 57-62.
Fidan AF, Dundar Y (2007) The Hypocholestrolemic and Antioxidant Effects of Yucca schidigera and Its Saponins and Phenolic Matters (A Review) Lalahan Hay Araşt Enst Derg 47: 31-39.
Freitas JC, Nunes-Pinheiro DC, Neto BE, Santos GJ, Abreu CR, Braga RR, Campos RM, Oliveira LF (2012) Clinical and laboratory alterations in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 45: 24-29.
Galler A, Tran JL, Krammer Lukas U, Holler U, Thalhammer JG, Zentek J, Willman M (2011) Blood vitamin levels in dogs with chronic kidney disease. Vet J 192: 226-31.
Garnero P, Munoz F, Sornay-Rendu E, Delmas PD (2007) Associations of vitamin D status with bone mineral density, bone turnover, bone loss and fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. The OFELY study. Bone 40: 716-722.
Gow AG, Else R, Evans H, Berry JL, Herrtage ME, Mellanby RJ (2011) Hypovitaminosis in dogs within flammatory bowel disease and hypoalbuminaemia. J Small Anim Pract 52: 411-418.
Gonul R, Arun SS, Dodurka T, Handemir E (2002) Leishmania infantum in a dog. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 26: 689-694.
Kalaycıoǧlu L, Serpek B, Nizamlıoǧlu M, Başpynar N, Tiftik AM (2000) Biochemistry 2nd edition. Ankara: Nobel Yayynevi p: 35-36.
Kalaycıoǧlu L, Serpek B, Nizamlıoǧlu M, Başpynar N, Tiftik AM (2006) Biochemisrty. Nobel Yayyn Daǧıtym, Ankara p: 55.
Kouzinas K, Saridomichelakis MN, Mylonakis ME, Leontidis L, Polyzopoulou Z, Billinis C, Argyriadis D, Diakou N, Papadopoulos O (2001) A randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial with allopurinol in canine leishmaniosis 98: 247-261.
Lainson R, Shaw JJ (1987) Evolution, classification and geographical distribution. In Peters W, Killick-Kendrick R, editors. The Leishmaniasis in Biology and Medicine, vol. Orlando: Academic Press p: 1-120.
Mettler M, Grimm F, Capelli G, Camp H, Deplazes P (2005) Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, an immunofluorescent-antibody test, and two rapid tests immunochromatographic dipstick and gel tests) for serological diagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania infections in dogs. J Clin Microbiol 43: 5515-5519.
Molano I, Alonso MG, Mirón C, Redondo E, Requena JM, Soto M, Nieto CG, Alonso C (2003) A Leishmania infantum multi-component antigenic protein mixed with live BCG confers protection to dogs experimentally infected with L. infantum. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 92: 1-13.
Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW (2004) Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry Translators: Mentes G, Ersoz B. Nobel Typ Kitabevleri Istanbul.
Oleszek W, Marston A (2000) Saponins in Food, Feeed stufs and Medicinal. Kluwer Academic Publishers p: 260.
Oliva G, Roura X, Crotti A, Maroli M, Castagnaro M, Gradoni L, Lubas G, Paltrinieri S, Zatelli A, Zini E (2010) Guidelines for treatment of leishmaniasis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 236: 1192-1198.
Onat T, Sönmez E, Emek K (2002) Human Biochemistry Palme Yayyncylyk p: 213-220.
Ozbel Y, Oskam L, Ozensoy S, Turgay N, Alkan MZ, Jaffe CL, Ozcel MA (2000) Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey: Comparison of serological, molecular, biological and parasitological procedures. Acta Trop 74: 1-6.
Ozbel Y, Turgay N, Alkan MA, Babaoglu A, Özensoy S, Babalyoglu N (2002) A zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis focus: Karabuk in Western Black Sea Region. Turkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi 26: 362-366.
Papadopoulou C, Kostoula A, Dimitriou D, Panagyou A, Bobojianni C, Antoniades G (2005) Human and canine leishmaniasis in asymptomatic and symptomatic population in Northwestern Greece. J Infect 50: 53-60.
Pasa S, Kargin F, Bildik A, Seyrek K, Ozbel Y, Ozensoy S (2003) Serum and Hair Levels of Zinc and other elements in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. Biological Trace Element Research 94: 141-147.
Pineda MH (2003) Mc Donald’s Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction. Iowa State Pres p:102.
Rallis T, Day MJ, Saridomichelakis MN, Adamama-Moraitou KK, Papazoglou L, Fytianou A, Koutinas AF (2005) Chronic Hepatitis Associated with Canine Leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum): a clinicopathological study of 26 Cases. J Comp Path 132: 145-152.
Sahota O, Masud T, San P, Hosking J (1999) Vitamin D insufficiency increases bone turnover markers and enhances bone loss at the hip in patients with established vertebral osteoporosis. Clin Endocrinol 51: 217-221.
Sahota O, Mundey MK, San P, Godber IM, Lawson N, Hosking DJ (2004) The relationship between vitamin D and parathyroid hormone calcium homeostasis, bone turnover, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis. Bone 35: 312-319.
Taher JH, Abdullah NA, Muhammed S, Faris E (2015) Evaluation of Some Enzymes Levels in Iraqi Children Infected with Visceral Leishmaniasis. Scholar Research Library, Der Pharma Chemica 7: 1-5.
Tryphonas L, Zavidzka Z, Bernard MA, Janzen EA (1977) Visceral leishmaniasis in a dog: Clinical, hematological and pathological observations. Can J Comp Med 41: 1-12.
Uzunoelu N (1998) Physicochemical properties of alkaline phosphatase enzyme. T Klinikleri Typ Bilimleri 18: 69-75.