High pathogenicity islands (HPIs) in Escherichia coli encode genes that are primarily involved in iron uptake and regulation, and confer virulence and pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the transfer of HPIs in avian E. coli and identify the function of HPI in the acceptor strain. The HPI transfer strain was obtained under conditions of low temperature and low iron abundance, and the donor and acceptor strains were confirmed. E. coli HPIs are transferred by horizontal gene transfer events, which are likely mediated primarily by homologous recombination in HPI-adjacent sequences. Assays for biological activity and pathogenicity changes in the acceptor strain indicated that HPIs might not be involved in pathogenesis in avian E. coli, and thus the main function of HPIs in this strain of bacteria may be to regulate iron nutrition.
Cheng D, Sun H, Xu J, Gao S (2006) PCR detection of virulence factor genes in Escherichia coli isolates from weaned piglets with edema disease and/or diarrhea in China. Veterinary Microbiology 115(4): 320-328.
Dho-Moulin M, Fairbrother JM (1999) Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Veterinary research. 30: 299-316.
Guyer DM, Kao JS, Mobley HL (1998) Genomic analysis of a pathogenicity island in uropathogenic escherichia coli cft073: distribution of homologous sequences among isolates from patients with pyelonephritis, cystitis, and catheter-associated bacteriuria and from fecal samples. Infection and Immunity 66(9): 4411-7.
Hacker J, Blum-Oehler G, Muhldorfer I, Tschape H (1997) Pathogenicity islands of virulent bacteria: structure, function and impact on microbial evolution. Mol Microbiol 23: 1089-1097.
Hacker J, Kaper J B (2000) Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. Annual Rev Microbiol 54: 641-679.
Heesemann J, Hantke K, Vocke T, Saken E, Rakin A, Stojiljkovic I, Berner R (1993) Virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica is closely associated with siderophore production, expression of an iron-repressible outer membrane polypeptide of 65,000 Da and pesticin sensitivity. Mol Microbiol 8: 397-408.
Hartmann A, Braun V (1981) Iron uptake and iron limited growth of Escherichia coli K-12. Arch Microbiol 130: 353-356.
Karch H, Schubert S, Zhang D, Zhang W, Schmidt H, Olschlager T, Hacker J (1999) A genomic island, termed high-pathogenicity island, is present in certain non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli clonal lineages. Infect Immun 67: 5994-6001.
Lesic B, Carniel E (2005) Horizontal transfer of the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J Bacteriol 187: 3352-3358.
Miles AA, Khimji PL (1975) Enterobacterial chelators of iron: their occurrence, detection, and relation to pathogenicity. J Med Microbiol 8: 477-490.
Pelludat C, Rakin A, Jacobi C A, Schubert S, Heesemann J (1998) The yersiniabactin biosynthetic gene cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica: organization and siderophore-dependent regulation. J Bacteriol 180: 538-546.
Perry RD (1993) Acquisition and storage of inorganic iron and hemin by the yersiniae. Trends Microbiol 1: 142-147.
Rakin A, Noelting C, Schubert S, Heesemann J (1999) Common and specific characteristics of the high-pathogenicity island of yersinia enterocolitica. Infection and Immunity 67(10): 5265-74.
Schubert S, Rakin A, Fischer D, Sorsa J, Heesemann J (1999) Characterization of the integration site of yersinia high-pathogenicity island in escherichia coli. Fems Microbiology Letters 179(2): 409.
Schubert S, Rakin A, Karch H, Carniel E, Heesemann J (1998) Prevalence of the “high-pathogenicity island” of Yersinia species among Escherichia coli strains that are pathogenic to humans. Infect Immun 66: 480-485.
Schwyn B, Neilands JB (1987) Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores. Anal Biochem 160: 47-56.
Versalovic J, Koeuth T, Lupski JR (1991) Distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in eubacteria and application to fingerprinting of bacterial genomes. Nucleic Acids Res 19: 6823-6831.
Xu L, Qi K, Peng K (2010) Detection of the core area located on yersinia high pathogenicity island in the avian pathogenic escherichia coli strain(CVCC1565). Journal of Biology 27(6): 49-50.
Zhou D, Hardt WD, Galan JE (1999) Salmonella typhimurium encodes a putative iron transport system within the centisome 63 pathogenicity island. Infect Immun 67: 1974-1981.