Pathological findings in low-field magnetic resonance imaging of the canine spine – a study of 112 patients

Open access

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of choice in diagnosing nervous system disorders. This paper presents the results of a study where selected segments of the canine spine were examined by low-field MRI in 112 patients. Images of pathological changes were obtained in spin echo (SE), fast spin echo (FSE) and hybrid contrast enhancement (3D HYCE) sequences. The cervical region of the spinal cord (C1-C5) was examined in 32 patients, the cervicothoracic region (C6-Th2)- in 14 patients, the thoracolumbar region (Th3-L3) – in 23 patients, and the lumbosacral region (L4-S3) – in 43 patients. The results were used to determine the incidence of pathological changes in different sections of the canine spine, such as intervertebral disc disease (IDD), disc desiccation, syringomyelia and changes characterized by higher uptake of the contrast medium. Intervertebral disc disease was diagnosed in 52.7% of patients and it was the most common abnormality. Disc dehydratation without protrusion or extrusion was noted in 23.2% of animals. Pathological changes with increased uptake of the contrast medium and indicative of neoplastic growth were observed in 13.4% of patients and syringomyelia was diagnosed in 9.82% of the examined animals. The proposed sequences revealed the presence of above abnormalities.

Brown NO, Helphrey ML, Prata RG (1977) Thoracolumbar disk disease in the dog: a retrospective analysis of 187 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 13: 665-672.

Carrera I, Sullivan M, McConnell F, Goncalves R (2011) Magnetic resonance imaging features of discospondylitis in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 52: 125-131.

Dennis R (2011) Optimal magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 52 (Supp.1): S72-S80.

Gage ED (1975) Incidence of clinical disc disease in the dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 11: 135-138.

Hecht S, Thomas WB, Marioni-Henry K, Echandi RL, Matthews AR, Adams WH (2009) Myelography vs. computed tomography in the evaluation of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion in chondrodystrophic dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 50: 353-359.

Knecht CD (1972) Results of surgical treatment for thoracolumbar disc protrusion. J Small Anim Pract 13: 449-453.

Levitski RE, Lipsitz D, Chauvet AE (1999) Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine in 27 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasoun 40: 332-341.

Macias C, McKee WM, May C, Innes JF (2002) Thoracolumbar disc disease in large dogs: a study of 99 cases. J Small Anim Pract 43: 439-446.

Necas A (1999) Clinical aspects of surgical treatment of thoracolumbar disc disease in dogs. A retrospective study of 300 cases. Acta Vet Brno 68: 121-130.

Penning V, Platt SR, Dennis R, Cappello R, Adams V (2006) Association of spinal cord compression seen on magnetic resonance imaging with clinical outcome in 67 dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. J Small Anim Pract 47: 644-650.

Robertson I, Thrall DE (2011) Imaging dogs with suspected disc herniation: pros and cons of myelography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. Vet Radiol Ultrasoun 52 (Suppl 1): S81-S84.

Sarto CG, Hage MC, Guimaraes LD, Giglio RF, Borges AP, Vulcano LC (2014) The role of B-mode ultrasonography in the musculoskeletal anatomical evaluation of the cervical region of the dog spine. Pesq Vet Bras 34: 91-97.

Taga A, Taura Y, Nakaichi M, Wada N, Hasegawa T (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging of syringomyelia in five dogs. J Small Anim Pract 41: 362-365.

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

The Journal of Committee of Veterinary Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.773

CiteScore 2016: 0.73

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.315
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.486

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 277 177 9
PDF Downloads 202 142 9