A review of paraoxonase 1 properties and diagnostic applications

Open access

Abstract

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an arylesterase associated with serum high density lipoprotein particles. Its name is derived from hydrolyzing one of several organophosphate compounds, namely paraoxon. Recent studies have shown that PON1 plays a protective role in diseases associated with oxidative stress such as atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Studies have demonstrated reduction-oxidative state changes involving PON1 in humans and laboratory animal models. Although there is less information about the role of this enzyme in veterinary medicine, new data suggest that PON1 might be a new oxidative stress marker in animal patients, similarly to humans.

Aldrige WN (1953) Serum esterases. I. Two types of esterases (A and B) hydrolysing p-nitrophenyl acetate, propionate and butyrate and a method for their determination. Biochem J 53: 110-117.

Antončić-Svetina M, Turk R, Svetina A, Gereš D, Rekić B, Juretić D (2011) Lipid status, paraoxonase-1 activity and metabolic parameters in serum of heifers and lactating cows related to oxidative stress. Res Vet Sci 90: 298-300.

Aviram M (1999) Does paraoxonase play a role in susceptibility to cardiovascular disease? Mol Med Today 5: 381-386.

Aviram M, Billecke S, Sorenson R, Bisgaier C, Newton R, Rosenblat M, Erogul J, Hsu C, Dunlop C, La Du B (1998A) Paraoxonase active site required for protection against LDL oxidation involves its free sulfhydryl group and is different that required for its arylesterase/ paraoxonase activities: selective action of human paraoxonase allozymes Q and R. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18: 1617-1624.

Aviram M, Rosenblat M (2004) Paraoxonases 1, 2, and 3, oxidative stress, and macrophage foam cell formation during atherosclerosis development. Free Radic Biol Med 37: 1304-1316.

Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Bisgaier CL, Newton RS, Primo-Parmo SL, La Du BN (1998B) Paraoxonase inhibits high-density lipoprotein oxidation and preserves its functions. A possible peroxidative role for paraoxonase. J Clin Invest 101: 1581-1590.

Azarsiz E, Kayikcioglu M, Payzin S, Yildirim Sözmen E (2003) PON1 activities and oxidative markers of LDL in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol 91: 43-51.

Bauchart D (1993) Lipid Absorption and Transport in Ruminants. J Dairy Sci 76: 3864-3881.

Bergmeier C, Siekmeier R, Gross W (2004) Distribution spectrum of paraoxonase activity in HDL fractions. Clin Chem 50: 2309-2315.

Billecke S, Draganov D, Counsell R, Stetson P, Watson C, Hsu C, La Du BN (2000) Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) isozymes Q and R hydrolyze lactones and cyclic carbonate esters. Drug Metab Dispos 28: 1335-1342.

Bionaz M, Trevisi E, Calamari L, Librandi F, Ferrari A, Bertoni G (2007) Plasma paraoxonase, health inflammatory conditions and liver function in trasition dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 90: 1740-1750.

Cao H, Girard-Globa A, Berthezene F, Moulin P (1999) Paraoxonase protection of LDL against peroxidation is independent of its esterase activity towards paraoxon and is unaffected by the Q-->R genetic polymorphism. J Lipid Res 40: 133-139.

Camps J, Garcia-Heredia A, Rull A, Alonso-Villaverde C, Aragonés G, Beltra´n-Debón R, Rodrtguez-Gallego E, Joven J (2012) PPARs in regulation of paraoxonases: control of oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. PPAR Res 2012: 616371.

Carr RL, Dail MB, Chambers HW, Chambers JE (2015) Species differences in paraoxonase mediated hydrolysis of several organophosphorus insecticide metabolites. J Toxicol 2015: 470189.

Draganov DI, Teiber JF, Speelman A, Osawa Y, Sunahara R, La Du BN (2005) Human paraoxonases (PON1, PON2, and PON3) are lactonases with overlapping and distinct substrate specificities. J Lipid Res 46: 1239-1247.

Deakin S, Leviev I, Gomaraschi M, Calabresi L, Franceschini G, James RW (2002) Enzymatically active paraoxonase-1 is located at the external membrane of producing cells and released by a high affinity, saturable, desorption mechanism. J Biol Chem 277: 4301-4308.

Deakin SP, Bioletto S, Bochaton-Piallat ML, James RW (2011) HDL-associated paraoxonase-1 can redistribute to cell membranes and influence sensitivity to oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 50: 102-109.

Eckerson HW, Wyte CM, La Du BN (1983) The human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet 35: 1126-1138.

Edmonson AJ, Lean IJ, Weaver LD, Farver T, Webster G (1989) A Body Condition Scoring chart for Holstein Dairy Cows. J Dairy Sci 72: 69-78.

Erzengin M, Demir D, Arslan M, Sinan S (2014) Purification and characterization of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) from Swiss Black, Holstein, and Montofon bovines. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173: 1597-1606.

Farid AS, Honkawa K, Fath EM, Nonaka N, Horii Y (2013) Serum paraoxonase-1 as biomarker for improved diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. BMC Vet Res 9: 73.

Feingold KR, Memon RA, Moser AH, Grunfeld C (1998) Paraoxonase activity in the serum and hepatic mRNA levels decrease during the acute phase response. Atherosclerosis 139: 307-315.

Ferretti G, Bacchetti T, Busni D, Rabini RA, Curatola G (2004) Protective effect of paraoxonase activity in high-density lipoproteins against erythrocyte membranes peroxidation: a comparison between healthy subjects and type 1 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 2957-2962.

Gaidukov L, Viji RI, Yacobson S, Rosenblat M, Aviram M, Tawfik DS (2010) ApoE induces serum paraoxonase PON1 activity and stability similar to ApoA-I. Biochemistry 49: 532-538.

Gan KN, Smolen A, Eckerson HW, La Du BN (1991) Purification of human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase. Evidence for one esterase catalyzing both activities. Drug Metab Dispos 19: 100-106.

Gewurz H, Mold C, Siegel J, Fiedel B (1982) C-reactive protein and the acute phase response. Adv Intern Med 27: 345-372.

Gugliucci A, Caccavello R, Kotani K, Sakane N, Kimura S (2013) Enzymatic assessment of paraoxonase 1 activity on HDL subclasses: a practical zymogram method to assess HDL function. Clin Chim Acta 415: 162-168.

Jain S, Gautam V, Naseem S (2011) Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 3: 118-127.

Jaouad L, Milochevitch C, Khalil A (2003) PON1 paraoxonase activity is reduced during HDL oxidation and is an indicator of HDL antioxidant capacity. Free Radic Res 37: 77-83.

Juretic D, Motejlkova A, Kunovic B, Rekic B, Flegar-Mestric Z, Vujic L, Mesic R, Lukac-Bajalo J, Simeon-Rudolf V (2006) Paraoxonase/arylesterase in serum of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Acta Pharm 56: 59-68.

Karabina SA, Lehner AN, Frank E, Parthasarathy S, Santanam N (2005) Oxidative inactivation of paraoxonase-- implications in diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1725: 213-221.

Kappelle PJ, Bijzet J, Hazenberg BP, Dullaart RP (2011) Lower serum paraoxonase-1 activity is related to higher serum amyloid a levels in metabolic syndrome. Arch Med Res 42: 219-225.

Khovidhunkit W, Memon RA, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C (2000) Infection and inflammation-induced proatherogenic changes of lipoproteins. J Infect Dis 181 (Suppl 3): S462-S472.

Kulka M, Bełtowski J, Kluciński W, Ostrowska M, Kołodziejska A, Kleczkowski M (2014) Serum paraoxonase-1 activity of dairy Holstein-Fresian cows in different lactation stages - preliminary study. Pol J Vet Sci 17: 143-147.

Kulka M, Kołodziejska-Lesisz J, Kluciński W (2016) Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and lipid metabolism parameters changes in different production cycle periods of Holstein-Friesian, Polish Red and Norwegian breeds. Pol J Vet Sci 19: 165-173.

Li WF, Costa LG, Richter RJ, Hagen T, Shih DM, Tward A, Lusis AJ, Furlong CE (2000) Catalytic efficiency determines the in-vivo efficiency of PON1 for detoxifying organophosphorus compounds. Pharmacogenetics 10: 767-779.

Lusis AJ (2000) Atherosclerosis. Nature 407: 233-241.

Mackness B, Hine D, Liu Y, Mastorikou M, Mackness M (2004) Paraoxonase-1 inhibits oxidised LDL-induced MCP-1 production by endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 318: 680-683.

Mackness MI, Walker CH (1988) Multiple forms of sheep serum A-esterase activity associated with the high-density lipoprotein. Biochem J 250: 539-545.

Méndez JC, Carretón E, Martínez S, Tvarijonaviciute A, Cerón JJ, Montoya-Alonso JA (2014) Acute phase response in dogs with Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol 204: 420-425.

Miyamoto T, Takahashi Y, Oohashi T, Sato K, Oikawa S (2005) Bovine paraoxonase 1 activites in serum and distribution in lipoproteins. J Vet Med Sci 67: 243-248.

Navab M, Berliner JA, Subbanagounder G, Hama S, Lusis AJ, Castellani LW, Reddy S, Shih D, Shi W, Watson AD, Van Lenten BJ, Vora D, Fogelman AM (2001) HDL and the Inflammatory Response Induced by LDL-Derived Oxidized Phospholipids. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21: 481-488.

Nguyen SD, Sok DE (2003) Oxidative inactivation of paraoxonase-1, an antioxidant protein and its effect on antioxidant action. Free Radic Res 37: 1319-1330.

Nobecourt E, Jacqueminet S, Hansel B, Chantepie S, Grimaldi A, Chapman MJ, Kontush A (2005) Defective antioxidative activity of small dense HDL3 particles in type 2 diabetes: relationship to elevated oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia. Diabetologia 48: 529-538.

Novak F, Vavrova L, Kodydkova J, Novak F Sr, Hynkova M, Zak A, Novakova O (2010) Decreased paraoxonase activity in critically ill patients with sepsis. Clin Exp Med 10: 21-25.

Roche JF, Mackey D, Diskin MD (2000) Reproductive management of postpartum cows. Anim Reprod Sci 60-61: 703-712.

Rosenson RS, Brewer HB Jr, Chapman MJ, Fazio S, Hussain MM, Kontush A, Krauss RM, Otvos JD, Remaley AT, Schaefer EJ (2011) HDL measures, particle heterogeneity, proposed nomenclature, and relation to atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Clin Chem 57: 392-410.

Rozenberg O, Rosenblat M, Coleman R, Shih DM, Aviram M (2003) Paraoxonase (PON1) deficiency is associated with increased macrophage oxidative stress: studies in PON1- knockout mice. Free Radic Biol Med 34: 774-784.

Rosenblat M, Vaya J, Shih D, Aviram M (2005) Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enhances HDL-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux via the ABCA1 transporter in association with increased HDL binding to the cells: a possible role for lysophosphatidylcholine. Atherosclerosis 179: 69-77. Rosenblat M, Oren R, Aviram M (2006) Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) attenuates macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344: 1271-1277.

Schuller S, Van Israll N, Vanbelle S, Clercx C, McEntee K (2011) Lack of efficacy of low-dose spironolactone as adjunct treatment to conventional congestive heart failure treatment in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 34: 322-331.

Shih DM, Xia YR, Wang XP, Miller E, Castellani LW, Subbanagounder G, Cheroutre H, Faull KF, Berliner JA, Witztum JL, Lusis AJ (2000) Combined serum paraoxonase knockout/apolipoprotein E knockout mice exhibit increased lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerosis. J Biol Chem 275: 17527-17535.

Sorenson RC, Primo-Parmo SL, Camper SA, La Du BN (1995) The genetic mapping and gene structure of mouse paraoxonase/arylesterase. Genomics 30: 431-438.

Sözmen EY, Sözmen B, Delen Y, Onat T (2001) Catalase/superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase/paraoxonase (PON) ratios may implicate poor glycemic control. Arch Med Res 32: 283-287.

Steinberg D (1997) Lewis A. Conner Memorial Lecture. Oxidative modification of LDL and atherogenesis. Circulation 95: 1062-1071.

Tsuzura S, Ikeda Y, Suehiro T, Ota K, Osaki F, Arii K, Kumon Y, Hashimoto K (2004) Correlation of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels to vascular complications and human serum paraoxonase in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 53: 297-302.

Turk R, Juretic D, Geres D, Turk N, Rekic B, Simeon-Rudolf V, Svetina A (2004) Serum paraoxonase activity and lipid parameters in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. Vet Res Sci 76: 57-61.

Van Lenten BJ, Hama SY, de Beer FC, Stafforini DM, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, La Du BN, Fogelman AM, Navab M (1995) Anti-inflammatory HDL becomes pro-inflammatory during the acute phase response. Loss of protective effect of HDL against LDL oxidation in aortic wall cell cocultures. J Clin Invest 96: 2758-2767.

Van Lenten BJ, Wagner AC, Nayak DP, Hama S, Navab M, Fogelman AM (2001) High-density lipoprotein loses its anti-inflammatory properties during acute influenza A infection. Circulation 103: 2283-2288.

Watson CE, Draganov DI, Billecke SS, Bisgaier CL, La Du BN (2001) Rabbits possess a serum paraoxonase polymorphism similar to the human Q192R. Pharmacogenetics 11: 123-134.

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

The Journal of Committee of Veterinary Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.773

CiteScore 2016: 0.73

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.315
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.486

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 322 207 18
PDF Downloads 288 224 17