The genus Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) consists of many species, growing mainly in Asia and traditionally used as adaptogens and anti-inflammatory drugs. In order to elaborate herbal immunostimulator which could be safely given to pregnant women, we performed a study on immunotropic effects of feeding pregnant and lactating mice Rhodiola kirilowii extracts. This paper presents the results of the first part of our study – spleen content of selected polyphenols, spleen cellularity, splenocytes phenotype and their response to mitogens. Experiments were performed on adult inbred females of Balb/c strain, mated with adult males. Females, since copulatory plug was noted, up to the 28-th day after delivery were fed daily with 20 mg/kg b.m. water (RKW) or hydro-alcoholic (RKW-A) extracts of Rhodiola kirilowii. Results: 1. Significantly lower proportion of pregnant mice in experimental groups than in the control. 2. Cellularity of spleen and flavonol quercetin spleen concentration were significantly lower in experimental groups in comparison to the controls. 3. Flavanols ((+)-catechin and epicatechin) levels were significantly higher in the spleens of experimental mice than in the controls. 4. Positive correlation between spleen cellularity and quercetin, and negative correlation between spleen cellularity and epicatechin content were observed. 5. Spleen mass and spleen lymphocytes phenotype and proliferation in RKW and RKW-A fed mice did not differ from the control. These results, together with suspicion of some embryo-toxicity, are worrying and eliminate the possibility of use Rhodiola kirilowii extracts for long-term treatment in pregnant females.
Bai H, Wang CB, Ma XH, Wei YP, Xi R, Zhao Q, Zhang Q (2014) Effects of salidroside on proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 22: 1072-1077.
Chu KO, Wang CC, Chu CY, Choy KW, Pang CP, Rogers MS (2007) Uptake and distribution of catechins in fetal organs following in utero exposure in rats. Hum Reprod 22: 280-287.
Da Silva CR, de Andrade Neto JB, de Sousa Campos R, Figueiredo NS, Sampaio LS, Magalhaes HI, Cavalcanti BC, Gaspar DM, de Andrade GM, Lima IS, de Barros Viana GS, de Moraes MO, Lobo MD, Grangeiro TB, Nobre Junior HV (2014) Synergistic effect of the flavonoid catechin, quercetin, or epigallocatechin gallate with fluconazole induces apoptosis in Candida tropicalis resistant to fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58: 1468-1478.
Dong W, Wei X, Zhang F, Hao J, Huang F, Zhang C, Liang W (2014) A dual character of flavonoids in influenza A virus replication and spread through modulating cell-autonomous immunity by MAPK signaling pathways. Sci Rep 4: 7237.
Erlund I, Alfthan G, Siren H, Ariniemi K, Aro A (1999) Validated method for the quantitation of quercetin from human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 727: 179-189.
Fan YC, Chan WH (2014) Epigallocatechin gallate induces embryonic toxicity in mouse blastocysts through apoptosis. Drug Chem Toxicol 37: 247-254.
Gee JM, Johnson IT (2001) Polyphenolic compounds: Interactions with the gut and implications for human health. Curr Med Chem 8: 1245-1255.
Guan S, He J, Guo W, Wei J, Lu J, Deng X (2011) Adjuvant effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea L on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 33: 738-743.
Lesser MN, Keen CL, Lanoue L (2015) Reproductive and developmental outcomes, and influence on maternal and offspring tissue mineral concentrations, of (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and rutin ingestion prior to, and during pregnancy and lactation in C57BL/6J mice. Toxicol Rep 2: 443-449
Lim R, Barker G, Wall CA, Lappas M (2013) Dietary phytophenols curcumin, naringenin and apigenin reduce infection-induced inflammatory and contractile pathways in human placenta, foetal membranes and myometrium. Mol Hum Reprod 19: 451-462.
Lim R, Morwood CJ, Barker G, Lappas M (2014) Effect of silibinin in reducing inflammatory pathways in in vitro and in vivo models of infection-induced preterm birth. PLoS One 9: e92505.
Loke WM, Hodgson JM, Proudfoot JM, McKinley AJ, Puddey IB, Croft KD (2008) Pure dietary flavonoids quercetin and (−)-epicatechin augment nitric oxide products and reduce endothelin-1 acutely in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 88: 1018-1025.
Lu L, Yuan J, Zhang S (2013) Rejuvenating activity of salidroside (SDS): dietary intake of SDS enhances the immune response of aged rats. Age 35: 637-646.
Ly C, Yockell-Lelimvre J, Ferraro ZM, Arnason JT, Ferrier J, Gruslin A (2015) The effects of dietary polyphenols on reproductive health and early development. Hum Reprod Update 21: 228-248.
Morwood CJ, Lappas M (2014) The citrus flavone nobiletin reduces pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators in fetal membranes and myometrium: implications for preterm birth. PLoS One 9: e108390.
Mu JJ, Zeng YY, Huang XY, Zhao XH, Song B (2009) Effects of kaempferol on activation, proliferation, and cell cycle of mouse T lymphocytes in vitro. Xi BaoYu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 25: 1106-1108.
Pae M, Wu D (2013) Immunomodulating effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea: mechanisms and applications. Food Funct 4: 1287-1303.
Rajendran P, Rengarajan T, Nandakumar N, Palaniswami R, Nishigaki Y, Nishigaki I (2014) Kaempferol, a potential cytostatic and cure for inflammatory disorders. Eur J Med Chem 86: 103-112.
Saleh F, Raghupathy R, Asfar S, Oteifa M, Al-Saleh N (2014) Analysis of the effect of the active compound of green tea (EGCG) on the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. BMC Complement Altern Med 14: 322.
Sanchez-Bridge B, Leveques A, Li H, Bertschy E, Patin A, Actis-Goretta L (2015) Modulation of (−)-epicatechin metabolism by coadministration with other polyphenols in Caco-2 cell model. Drug Metab Dispos 43: 9-16.
Siwicki AK, Skopińska-Różewska E, Hartwich M, Wójcik R, Bakuła T, Furmanowa M, Bałan BJ, Sommer E, Mielcarek S, Buchwald W, Krajewska – Patan A, Mścisz A, Mrozikiewicz PM, Bany J (2007) The influence of Rhodiola rosea extracts on non-specific and specific cellular immunity in pigs, rats and mice. Centr Eur J Immunol 32: 84-91.
Skopińska-Różewska E, Wójcik R, Siwicki AK, Sommer E, Wasiutyński A, Furmanowa M, Malinowski M, Mazurkiewicz M (2008) The effect of Rhodiola quadrifida extracts on cellular immunity in mice and rats. Pol J Vet Sci 11: 105-111.
Tu HC, Chen CP, Chan WH (2010) Epicatechin gallate decreases the viability and subsequent embryonic development of mouse blastocysts. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 49: 174-180.
Uzun FG, Kalender Y (2013) Chlorpyrifos induced hepatotoxic and hematologic changes in rats: the role of quercetin and catechin. Food Chem Toxicol 55: 549-556.
Vanhees K, de Bock L, Godschalk RW, van Schooten FJ, van Waalwijk van Doorn-Khosrovani SB (2011) Prenatal exposure to flavonoids: implication for cancer risk. Toxicol Sci 120: 59-67.
Vazquez Prieto MA, Bettaieb A, Rodriguez Lanzi C, Soto VC, Perdicaro DJ, Galmarini CR, Haj FG, Miatello RM, Oteiza PI (2015) Catechin and quercetin attenuate adipose inflammation in fructose-fed rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mol Nutr Food Res 59: 622-633.
Wang CC, Chu KO, Chong WS, Li WY, Pang CP, Shum AS, Lau TK, Rogers MS (2007) Tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases 8-isoprostane level and induces caudal regression in developing rat embryos. Free Radic Biol Med 43: 519-527.
Wang P, Heber D, Henning SM (2012) Quercetin increased bioavailability and decreased methylation of green tea polyphenols in vitro and in vivo. Food Funct 3: 635-42.
Wei YP, Bai H, Sun YQ, Bao S, Xi R, Liu L (2013) Effect of salidroside on apoptosis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by ara-C. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 21: 1572-1577.
Wójcik R, Siwicki AK, Skopińska-Różewska E, Wasiutyński A, Sommer E, Furmanowa M (2009) The effect of Chinese medicinal herb Rhodiola kirilowii extracts on cellular immunity in mice and rats. Pol J Vet Sci 12: 399-405.
Yoshida N, Kuriyama I, Yoshida H, Mizushina Y (2013) Inhibitory effects of catechin derivatives on mammalian DNA polymerase and topoisomerase activities and mouse one-cell zygote development. J Biosci Bioeng 115: 303-309.
Zdanowski R, Lewicki S, Sikorska K, Żmigrodzka M, Buchwald W, Wilczak J, Skopińska-Różewska E (2014) The influence of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of roots and rhizomes of Rhodiola kirilowii on the course of pregnancy in mice. Centr Eur J Immunol 39: 471-475.
Zdanowski R, Stankiewicz W, Kamiński A, Grzela T, Skopiński P, Lewicki S, Skopińska-Różewska E (2012) The effect of sterilization by irradiation of human pericardium and skin frozen tissues on their ability to influence the proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. Centr Eur J Immunol 37: 119-122.
Zhao X, Lu Y, Tao Y, Huang Y, Wang D, Hu Y, Liu J, Wu Y, Yu Y, Liu C (2013) Salidroside liposome formulation enhances the activity of dendritic cells and immune responses. Int Immunopharmacol 17: 1134-1140.
Zielinsky P, Busato S (2013) Prenatal effects of maternal consumption of polyphenol-rich foods in late pregnancy upon fetal ductus arteriosus. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 99: 256-274.