Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses

Open access

Abstract

Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state.

Andronie I, Parvu M, Andronie V, Ciurea A (2009) Effects of transportation stress on some physiological indicators in sport horses. Zootehnie si Biotehnologii 42: 379-384.

Borges AS, Divers TJ, Stokol T, Mohammed OH (2007) Serum iron and plasma fibrinogen concentrations as indicators of systemic inflammatory diseases in horses. J Vet Intern Med 21: 489-494.

Bouzid MA, Hammouda O, Matran R, Robin S, Fabre C (2014) Changes in oxidative stress markers and biological markers of muscle injury with aging at rest and in response to an exhaustive exercise. PloS One 9:e 90420.

Cai L, Yi F, Dai Z, Huang X, Zhao Y D, Mirza MK, Xu J, Vogel SM, Zhao YY (2014) Loss of caveolin-1 and adiponectin induces severe inflammatory lung injury following LPS challenge through excessive oxidative/nitrative stress. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 306: L566-L573.

Casella S, Fazio F, Giannetto C, Giudice E, Piccione G (2012) Influence of transportation on serum concentrations of acute phase proteins in horse. Res Vet Sci 93: 914-917.

Chiaradia E, Avellini L, Rueca F, Spaterna A, Porciello F, Antonioni MT, Gaiti A (1998) Physical exercise, oxidative stress and muscle damage in racehorses. Comp Biochem Physiol B 119: 833-836.

Coyne CP, Carlson GP, Spensley MS, Smith J (1990) Preliminary investigation of alterations in blood viscosity, cellular composition, and electrophoresis plasma protein fraction profile after competitive racing activity in Thoroughbred horses. Am J Vet Res 51: 1956-1963.

Crisman MV, Scarratt WK, Zimmerman KL (2008) Blood proteins and inflammation in the horse. Vet Clin Equine 24: 285-297.

Cywińska A, Szarska E, Górecka R, Witkowski L, Hecold M, Bereznowski A, Schollenberger A, Winnicka A (2012) Acute phase protein concentrations after limited distance and long distance endurance rides in horses. Res Vet Sci 93: 1402-1406.

Foreman JH, Ferlazzo A (1996) Physiological responses to stress in the horse. Pferdeheilkunde 12: 401-404.

Guozhen L, Feng X, Wang S (2005) Effects of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase on strain injury-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in rats. Physiol Res 54: 193-199.

Hargreaves BJ, Kronfeld DS, Waldron JN, Lopes MA, Gay LS, Saker KE, Cooper WL, Sklan DJ, Harris PA (2002) Antioxidant status and muscle cell leakage during endurance exercise. Equine Vet J Suppl 34: 116-121.

Ishida N, Hobo S, Takahashi T, Nanbo Y, Sato F, Hasegawa T, Mukoyama H (1999) Chronological changes in superoxide-scavenging ability and lipid peroxide concentration of equine serum due to stress from exercise and transport. Equine Vet J Suppl 30: 430-433.

Kalavacherla US, Ishaq M, Rao UR, Sachindranath A, Hepsiba T (1994) Malondialdehyde as a sensitive marker of inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Assoc Physicians India 42: 775-776.

Kirschvink N, de Moffarts B, Lekeux P (2008) The oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in horses. Vet J 177: 178-191.

Kumar KJ, Yang HL, Tsai YC, Hung PC, Chang SH, Lo HW, Shen PC, Chen SC, Wang HM, Wang SY, Chou CW, Hseu YC (2013) Lucidone protects human skin keratinocytes against free radical-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through the up-regulation of HO-1/Nrf2 antioxidant genes and down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway Food Chem Toxicol 59: 55-66.

Lee IT, Yang CM (2012) Role of NADPH oxidase/ROS in pro-inflammatory mediators-induced airway and pulmonary diseases. Biochem Pharmacol 84: 581-90.

Lindner A, Hatzipanagiotou A (1998) Effect of age and of performance parameters on CK, LDH and AST activities in plasma of Standardbred horses during exercise. Pferdeheilkunde 14: 456-460.

Marlin DJ, Fenn K, Smith N, Deaton CD, Roberts CA, Harris PA, Dunster C, Kelly FJ (2002) Changes in circulatory antioxidant status in horses during prolonged exercise. J Nutr 132: 1622S-1627S.

Niedźwiedź A, Zawadzki M, Filipowski H, Nicpoń J (2012) Influence of 8-hour transportation on selected physiological parameters in horses. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 56: 193-197.

Nemec Svete A, Ćebulj-Kadunc N, Frangeź R, Kruljc P (2012) Serum cortisol and haematological, biochemical and antioxidant enzyme variables in horse blood sampled in a slaughterhouse lairage, immediately before stunning and during exsanguination. Animal 6: 1300-1306.

Onmaz AC, van den Hoven R, Gunes V, Cinar M, Kucuk O (2011) Oxidative stress in horses after a 12-hours transport period. Revue Med Vet 162: 213-217.

Piccione G, Bazzano M, Giannetto C, Marafioti S, Fazio F (2014) Training-induced changes in clotting parameters of athletic horses. J Vet Sci 15: 45-49.

Soares JC, Zanella R, Bondan C, Alves LP, de Lima MR, da Motta AC, Zanella EL (2011) Biochemical and antioxidant changes in plasma, serum, and erythrocytes of horses before and after a jumping competition. J Equine Vet Sci 31: 357-360.

Stull CL, Rodiek AV (2000) Physiological responses of horses to 24 hours of transportation using a commercial van during summer conditions. J Anim Sci 78: 1458-1466.

Szponder T, Wessely-Szponder J (2010) Plasma level of Protein C, fibrinogen concentration and platelet number in dogs with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease and osteochondrosis. Preliminary studies. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 54: 433-436.

Uchino Y, Kawakita T, Miyazawa M, Ishii T, Onouchi H, Yasuda K, Ogawa Y, Shimmura S, Ishii N, Tsubota K (2012) Oxidative stress induced inflammation initiates functional decline of tear production. PLoS One 7.

Wessely-Szponder J, Bełkot Z, Bobowiec R, Wójcik M, Kosior- Korzecka U (2014) Crosstalk between adiponectin and cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) during transportation stress in horses Med Weter 70: 546-549.

Wernicki A, Urban-Chmiel R, Kankofer M, Mikucki P, Puchalski A, Tokarzewski S (2006) Evaluation of plasma cortisol and TBARS levels in calves after short-term transportation. Revue Med Vet 157: 30-34.

Wójcik M, Kosior-Korzecka U, Bobowiec R (2010) Cytoprotective action of 17β-oestradiol against iron-induced hepatic oxidative stress in vitro. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 54: 259-263.

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

The Journal of Committee of Veterinary Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.773

CiteScore 2016: 0.73

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.315
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.486

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 400 362 25
PDF Downloads 162 156 11