The effect of selected environmental Fusarium mycotoxins on the ovaries in the female wild boar (Sus scrofa)

Open access


The contamination of agricultural crops with Fusarium mycotoxins poses one of the greatest problems in food production. Wild boars live in specific habitats and are physiologically sensitive to Fusarium mycotoxins, therefore, they are an interesting model for studies investigating the effects of the discussed toxin, in particular under low-dose exposure. The objective of this study was to determine potential effects of Fusarium mycotoxins ingested with naturally contaminated food on reproductive function based on the proliferation and apoptotic indices of ovarian follicles in female wild boars. The experiment was conducted on 40 wild boars inhabiting north-eastern Poland. The effect of seasonal variations in the quantity and quality of ingested food on the concentrations of Fusarium mycotoxins and their metabolites in the blood of wild boars was analyzed. The observed differences in toxin levels were accompanied by changes in proliferation and apoptotic indices. Proliferation processes were most intense in autumn-winter and were least advanced in winter-spring. The intensity of apoptotic processes was inversely correlated with proliferation.

Alonso-Pozos I, Rosales-Torres AM, Avalos-Rodriguez A, Vergara-Onofre M, Rosado-Garcia A (2003) Mechanism of granulosa cell death during follicular atresia depends on follicular size. Theriogenology 60: 1071-1081.

Barton M (2012) Position paper: The membrane estrogen receptor GPER – Clues and questions. Steroids 77: 935-942.

Baserga R (1991) Growth regulation of the PCNA gene. J Cell Sci 98: 433-436.

Boadella M, Barasona JA, Pozio E, Montoro V, Vicente J, Gortazar C, Acevedo P (2012) Spatio-temporal trends and risk factors for Trichinella species infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations of central Spain: a long-term study. Int J Parasitol 42: 739-745.

Bravo R, Frank R, Blundell PA, Mac Donald-Bravo H (1981) Cyclin/PCNA is the auxiliary proteins of DNA polymerase-delta. Nature 326: 515-517.

Brevini TA, Zanetto SB, Cillo F (2005) Effects of endocrine disruptors on developmental and reproductive functions. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 5: 1-10.

Crain DA, Janssen SJ, Edwards TM, Heindel J, Ho S, Hunt P, Iguchi T, Juul A, McLachlan JA, Schwartz J, Skakkebaek N, Soto AM, Swan S, Walker C, Woodruff TK, Woodruff TJ, Giudice LC, Guillette LJ Jr (2008) Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing. Fertil Steril 90: 911-940.

De Saeger S, van Egmond HP (2012) Special issue: masked mycotoxins. World Mycotoxin J 5: 203-206.

Dobrzyński L, Fornalski KW (2011) Hormesis – natural phenomenon of answer of organism on stress. Proceedings, of VII International Scientific Conference: Veterinary Feed Hygiene – The Effects of Mycotoxins on Gastrointestinal Function. 23-24 September 2011, Olsztyn, Poland, pp 6-14.

Dunbar B, Patel M, Fahey J, Wira C (2012) Endocrine control of mucosal immunity in the female reproductive tract: impact of environmental disruptors. Mol Cell Endocrinol 354: 85-93.

Falco M (2009) Proliferation index and its prognostic value in invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Ann Acad Med Stetin 55: 22-30.

Fonseca C, Alves da Silva A, Alves J, Vingada J, Soares AM (2011) Reproductive performance of wild boar females in Portugal. Eur J Wildl Res 57: 363-371.

Frizzell C, Ndossi D, Verhaegen S, Dahl E, Eriksen G, Sørlie M, Ropstad E, Muller M, Elliott CT, Connolly L (2011) Endocrine disrupting effects of zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol at the level of nuclear receptor binding and steroidogenesis. Toxicol Lett 206: 210-217.

Gajęcka M (2013) The effect of experimental low zearalenone intoxication on ovarian follicles in pre-pubertal bitches. Pol J Vet Sci 16: 45-54.

Gajęcka M, Rybarczyk L, Zwierzchowski W, Jakimiuk E, Zielonka Ł, Obremski K, Gajęcki M (2011) The effect of experimental, long-term exposure to low-dose zearalenone mycotoxicosis on the histological condition of ovaries in sexually immature gilts. Theriogenology 75: 1085-1094.

Gajęcka M, Zielonka Ł, Dąbrowski M, Mróz M, Gajęcki M (2013) The effect of low doses of zearalenone and its metabolites on progesterone and 17β-estradiol concentrations in blood of pre-pubertal female beagle dogs. Toxicon 76: 260-269.

Gajęcki M, Gajęcka M, Jakimiuk E, Zielonka Ł, Obremski K (2010) Zearalenone – undesirable substance. In: Rai M, Varma A (eds) Mycotoxins in food, feed and bioweapons. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 131-144.

Goyarts T, Brüssow KP, Valenta H, Tiemann U, Jäger K, Dänicke S (2010) On the effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) administered per os or intraperitoneal infusion to sows during days 63 to 70 of gestation. Mycotoxin Res 26: 119-131.

Heberer T, Lahrssen-Wiederholt M, Schafft H, Abraham K, Pzyrembel H, Henning KJ, Schauzu M, Braeunig J, Goetz M, Niemann L, Gundert-Remy U, Luch A, Appel B, Banasiak U, Böl GF, Lampen A, Wittkowski R, Hensel A (2007) Zero tolerances in food and animal feed-are there any scientific alternatives? A European point of view on an international controversy. Toxicol Lett 175: 118-135.

Keuling O, Lauterbach K, Stier N, Roth M (2010) Hunter feedback of individually marked wild boar Sus scrofa L.: dispersal and efficiency of hunting in northeastern Germany. Eur J Wildl Res 56: 159-167.

Keuling O, Stier N, Roth M (2009) Commuting, shifting or remaining? Different spatial utilisation patterns of wild boar Sus scrofa L. in forest and field crops during summer. Mamm Biol 74: 145-152.

Keuling O, Stier N, Roth M (2008) Annual and seasonal space use of different age classes of female wild boar Sus scrofa L. Eur J Wildl Res 54: 403-412.

Kozdrowski R, Dubiel A (2004) The effect of season on the properties of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) semen. Anim Reprod Sci 80: 281-289.

Liu T, Zhang S, Tang J, Li T (2013) Comparison and Analysis of Agricultural and Forest Land Changes in Typical Agricultural Regions of Northern Mid-latitudes. Chin Geogra Sci 23: 163-172.

McManus PM (1999) Frequency and severity of mastocytemia in dogs with and without mast cell tumors: 120 cases (1995-1997). J AmVet Med Assoc 215: 355-357.

Morgavi DP, Riley RT (2007) An historical overview of field disease outbreaks known or suspected to be caused by consumption of feeds contaminated with Fusarium toxins. Anim Feed Sci Tech 137: 201-212.

Scientific Report of EFSA (2013) Deoxynivalenol in food and feed: occurrence and exposure. EFSA J 11(10): 3379

Shephard GS (2011) Fusarium mycotoxins and human health. Plant Breeding Seed Sci 64: 113-121.

Silva-Campa E, Mata-Haro V, Mateu E, Hernändez J (2012) Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces CD4+CD8+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Virology 430: 73-80.

Sobańska E, Bar JK, Gryboś M, Gabryś M (2007) Evaluation of prognostic value of cyclin D1, cyclin E, p27 protein and proliferative activity PCNA in ovarian carcinomas. Onkol Pol 10: 97-104.

Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB, Heindel JJ, Jacobs DR Jr, Lee DH, Shioda T, Soto AM, vom Saal FS, Welshons WV, Zoeller RT, Myers JP (2012) Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocr Rev 33: 378-455.

van Ginkel HA, Kuijper DP, Churski M, Zub K, Szafrańska P, Smit C (2013) Safe for saplings not safe for seeds: Quercus robur recruitment in relation to coarse woody debris in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Forest Ecol Manag 304: 73-79.

Wasson K, Woolfolk A, Fresquez C (2013) Ecotones as Indicators of Changing Environmental Conditions: Rapid Migration of Salt Marsh-Upland Boundaries. Estuar Coast 36: 654-664.

Yurino H, Ishikawa S, Sato T, Akadegawa K, Ito T, Ueha S, Inadera H, Matsushima K (2004) Endocrine disruptors (environmental estrogens) enhance autoantibody production by B1 cells. Toxicol Sci 81: 139-147.

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

The Journal of Committee of Veterinary Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.773

CiteScore 2016: 0.73

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.315
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.486

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 147 116 5
PDF Downloads 77 73 4