Campylobacter infection is the leading foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and the bacteria are frequently isolated from the intestines of chickens. The broiler meat contamination with C. jejuni or C. coli may occur during slaughter processing. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry flocks and the corresponding broiler carcasses in 15 districts (voivodeships) all over Poland. A total of 128 samples from broiler flocks and the corresponding carcasses were collected between February 2011 and April 2013. The Campylobacter isolation and species identification were performed according to ISO 10272-1 standard and with PCR. It was found that 112 flock (96.5%) were contaminated with campylobacters, either C. jejuni (77 samples; 68.7%) or C. coli (35 flocks; 31.3%). Analysis of the corresponding chicken carcasses tested after chilling revealed that 77 out of 128 (60.2%) samples were positive for Campylobacter, either C. jejuni (58; 75.3%) or C. coli (19; 24.7%). Most of the carcasses were contaminated with the same Campylobacter species as identified in the corresponding flock before slaughter. As tested by PCR, out of the 77 crops with C. jejuni 58 were positive for the same bacterial species. On the other hand, out of the remaining 35 flocks infected with C. coli, only 19 corresponding carcass samples were contaminated with C. coli. In three cases in the slaughtered flocks C. jejuni was identified but in the same carcasses C. coli was found. The opposite findings (flock positive for C. coli but the corresponding carcasses contaminated with C. jejuni) were seen in six voivodeships. It was also observed that several carcass samples were negative for C. jejuni and C. coli although the original flocks were Campylobacter-positive before slaughter (total 36 of the 77 samples; 46.7%). On the other hand, some carcasses were contaminated with Campylobacter although the flocks were negative for these bacteria (9 samples; 11.7%) which may also be due to internal contamination during slaughter of broilers.
Adkin A, Hartnett E, Jordan L, Newell D, Davison H (2006) Use of a systematic review to assist the development of Campylobacter control strategies in broilers. J Appl Microbiol 100: 306-315.
Allen VM, Bull SA, Corry JE, Domingue G, Jzrgensen F, Frost JA, Whyte R, Gonzalez A, Elviss N, Humphrey TJ (2007) Campylobacter spp. contamination of chicken carcasses during processing in relation to flock colonisation. Int J Food Microbiol 113: 54-61.
Allen VM, Weaver H, Ridley AM, Harris JA, Sharma M, Emery J, Sparks N, Lewis M, Edge S (2008) Sources and spread of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during partial depopulation of broiler chicken flocks. J Food Prot 71: 264-270.
Beery JT, Hugdahl MB, Doyle MP (1988) Colonization of gastrointestinal tracts of chicks by Campylobacter jejuni. Appl Environ Microbiol 54: 2365-2370.
Bull SA, Allen VM, Domingue G, Jorgensen F, Frost JA, Ure R, Whyte R, Tinker D, Corry JE, Gillard-King J, Humphrey TJ (2006) Sources of Campylobacter spp. colonizing housed broiler flocks during rearing. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 645-652.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) (2014) The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2012. EFSA J 12: 3547, 312 pp.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) (2010) Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008, Part A: Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence estimates. EFSA J 8: 1503, 100 pp.
Ellerbroek LI, Lienau JA, Klein G (2010) Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks at farm level and the potential for cross-contamination during slaughter. Zoonoses Public Health 57: e81-e88.
Habib I, Berkvens D, De Zutter L, Dierick K, Van Huffel X, Speybroeck N, Geeraerd AH, Uyttendaele M (2012) Campylobacter contamination in broiler carcasses and correlation with slaughterhouses operational hygiene inspection. Food Microbiol 29: 105-112.
Hue O, Allain V, Laisney MJ, Le Bouquin S, Lalande F, Petetin I, Rouxel S, Quesne S, Gloaguen PY, Picherot M, Santolini J, Bougeard S, Salvat G, Chemaly M (2011) Campylobacter contamination of broiler caeca and carcasses at the slaughterhouse and correlation with Salmonella contamination. Food Microbiol 28: 862-868.
Humphrey T, O'Brien S, Madsen M (2007) Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: a food production perspective. Int J Food Microbiol 117: 237-257.
Miwa N, Takegahara Y, Terai K, Kato H, Takeuchi T (2003) Campylobacter jejuni contamination on broiler carcasses of C. jejuni-negative flocks during processing in a Japanese slaughterhouse. Int J Food Microbiol 84: 105-109.
Nauta MJ, Jacobs-Reitsma WF, Havelaar AH (2007) A risk assessment model for Campylobacter in broiler meat. Risk Anal 27: 845-861.
Newell DG, Fearnley C (2003) Sources of Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 4343-4351.
Newell DG, Shreeve JE, Toszeghy M, Domingue G, Bull S, Humphrey T, Mead G (2001) Changes in the carriage of Campylobacter strains by poultry carcasses during processing in abattoirs. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 2636-2640.
Normand V, Boulianne M, Quessy S (2008) Evidence of cross-contamination by Campylobacter spp. of broiler carcasses using genetic characterization of isolates. Can J Vet Res 72: 396-402.
Reich F, Atanassova V, Haunhorst E, Klein G (2008) The effects of Campylobacter numbers in caeca on the contamination of broiler carcasses with Campylobacter. Int J Food Microbiol 127: 116-120.
Riddle MS, Gutierrez RL, Verdu EF, Porter CK (2012) The chronic gastrointestinal consequences associated with Campylobacter. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 14: 395-405.
Ridley AM, Morris V K, Cawthraw SA, Ellis-Iversen J, Harris JA, Kennedy EM, Newell DG, Allen VM (2011) Longitudinal molecular epidemiological study of thermophilic campylobacters on one conventional broiler chicken farm. Appl Environ Microbiol 77: 98-107.
Rivoal K, Denis M, Salvat G, Colin P, Ermel G (1999) Molecular characterization of the diversity of Campylobacter spp. isolates collected from a poultry slaughterhouse: analysis of cross-contamination. Lett Appl Microbiol 29: 370-374.
Wieczorek K, Kania I, Osek J (2013) Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry carcasses in Poland. J Food Prot 76: 1451-1455.
Wieczorek K, Osek J (2005) Multiplex PCR assays for simultaneous identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Med Weter 61: 797-799.
Wirz SE, Overesch G, Kuhnert P, Korczak BM (2010) Genotype and antibiotic resistance analyses of Campylobacter isolates from ceca and carcasses of slaughtered broiler flocks. Appl Environ Microbiol 76: 6377-6386.