Botulinum toxin type A-induced changes in the chemical coding of dorsal root ganglion neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX) is a potent neurotoxin, which in recent years has been effectively applied in experimental treatments of many neurogenic disorders of the urinary bladder. BTX is a selective, presynaptically-acting blocking agent of acetylcholine release from nerve terminals what, in turn, leads to the cessation of somatic motor and/or parasympathetic transmission. However, application of this toxin in urological practice is still in the developmental stages and the full mechanism of its action remain elusive. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the neurochemical characterization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after BTX treatment. Retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the urinary bladder wall in six juvenile female pigs and three weeks later, intramural bladder injections of BTX (100 IU per animal) were carried out in all the animals. After a week, DRG from L1 to Cq1 were harvested from the pigs and neurochemical characterization of FB+ neurons was performed using double-labeling immunofluorescence technique on 10-μm-thick cryostat sections. BTX injections led to a significant decrease in the number of FB+ neurons containing substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calbindin (CB), somatostatin (SOM) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) when compared with that found in the healthy animals (19% vs. 45%, 18% vs. 36%, 0.6% vs. 3%, 0.4 vs. 4% and 0.1% vs. 6%, respectively) These data demonstrated that BTX changed the chemical coding of bladder sensory neurons, and therefore this drug should be taken into consideration when it planning experimental therapy of selected neurogenic bladder disorders.
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