Dorota Trzcińska 1 , Dorota Świderska 2 , Piotr Tabor 1  and Elżbieta Olszewska 1
  • 1 The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Department of Physical Education Theory and Posture Correction Exercises
  • 2 Student of the third year of PhD studies at the Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw


Introduction. Body posture is a somatic characteristic essential for the biological development of the child, especially in the periods of rapid growth and those associated with changes in lifestyle. Its lability and dimorphic and ontogenetic variability cause a lot of controversy. Doubts are also raised by environmental diversity of this development feature. Hence, the purpose of the studies undertaken is the comparative evaluation of postures of six-year-old children in urban and rural areas. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2011-2013. A total of 1057 children, including the 371 boys and girls from the Warsaw agglomeration and 147 boys and 168 girls from the rural environment in the Lublin region were subjects of the study. The average age was 5.87 (± 0.30) years. Posture in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes was diagnosed by a visual method using scanning technique. In the mathematical analysis of numerical data the selected techniques of descriptive statistics and Student's t-test and chi-square test were used. Results. The differences in body posture between the environments in favor of the children from the rural areas emerged most strongly in the sagittal plane. They related to posture components such as: setting of the shoulders and shoulder blades (boys and girls), abdominal bulge (boys) and the position of the head (girls). In the assessment of the lower extremities the study demonstrated favorable condition knees in rural children as compared with their peers from the city. The only element of posture better shaped in the urban subgroup was the size of thoracic kyphosis. Conclusions. Established posture quality - treated as one of the positive measures of health - allows for a higher rating of this school readiness component in lowly urbanized residential areas. The complexity of posture diagnostics and lability and variability of the analyzed somatic characteristics dictate caution in formulating radical and definitive opinions on the importance of urbanization as posturogenesis condition.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Kutzner-Kozińska M., Olszewska E., Popiel M., Trzcińska D. (2001). The process of posture correcting. Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish]

  • Lichota M. (2003). The first critical period of posturogenesis in studies of selected group of children from Biała Podlaska. Doctoral thesis, Physical Edycation Academy in Gdańsk. [in Polish]

  • Olszewska E., Trzcińska D., Tabor P. (2009). Body posture of children entering school. In H. Popławska (Ed.), Somatic development, physical fitness and health status of rural children and adolescents (pp. 193-204). Biała Podlaska: ZWWF in Biała Podlaska.

  • Szuman S. (1962). School maturity of 7-year old children. Nowa Szkoła 6, 19-22. [in Polish]

  • Górniak K., Lichota M. (1999). The incidence of postural defects in urban and rural children education starting primary school education. In J. Zagorski, R. Cieśliński, M. Skład, H. Popławska (Eds.) Determinants of physical development of rural children and adolescents. Roczniki Naukowe IWFiS Biała Podlaska 6, 245-250. [in Polish]

  • Śliwa W., Bugajski A., Czamara A. (1995). Analysis of body posture of children from urban and rural environments. Medycyna Sportowa 43, 13-15. [in Polish]

  • Pośpiech D. (2000). Posture defects in students aged 6-14 years growing up in diverse environments. In J. Ślężyński (Ed.), Theoretical and practical aspects of human physical activity (pp. 47-52). Katowice: PTNKF AWF Katowice. [in Polish]

  • Romanowska A. (2009). Change of the child posture under the influence of a school backpack. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne 5, 13-19. [in Polish]

  • Ridan T., Grodzka K., Malczak M., Kużdżał A. (2010). Characteristics of postural defects in a group of thirteen-year old boys and girls, on the example of junior high school students. Postępy Rehabilitacji, Suplement 8, 102. [in Polish]

  • Rongies W., Rogala A., Lewandowska M., Sierdziński J., Dolecki W., Trzepla E. (2010). Evaluation of the impact of living in urban areas of varying population on the occurrence of selected posture of children aged 10-12 years. Postępy Rehabilitacji, Suplement 8, 101. [in Polish]

  • Śliwa W., Chlebicka E., Chromik K. (2005). Environmental differences in the shape of the spinal curves in boys aged 5-15 years. In K. Górniak (Ed.), Corrective exercises and compensation of disturbances in the physical development of children and (pp. 363-369). Biała Podlaska: AWF ZWWF Biała Podlaska. [in Polish]

  • Trzcińska D., Olszewska E., Tabor P. (2011). Health-related school readiness of children in urban and rural areas. Studia i Monografie 138, Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish]

  • Wilczyński J. (2004). The differences in posture between children from the urban and rural environments. In J. Zagórski, H. Popławska, M. Skład (Eds.), Determinants of the development of children and adolescents in rural (pp. 522-530). Lublin: IMW Lublin. [in Polish]

  • Lichota M. (2004). Body posture of preschool children coming from families of different social status. In J. Zagórski, H.

  • Popławska, M. Skład (Eds.), Determinants of the development of children and adolescents from rural areas (pp. 416-426). Lublin: IMW Lublin. [in Polish]

  • Górniak K. (2004). Social determinants of low-grade scoliosis prevalence in rural children (selected aspects). In J. Zagórski, H. Popławska, M. Skład (Eds.), Determinants of the development of children and adolescents from rural areas (pp. 394-400). Lublin: IMW, Lublin. [in Polish]

  • Chrzanowska M., Gołąb S. (Eds.) (2003). Krakow child 2000.

  • Physical fitness and posture of children and adolescents of Krakow. Studia i Monografie 22, Kraków: AWF Kraków. [in Polish]

  • Stupnicki R. (2011). Analysis and presentation of survey data. Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish]

  • Sokołowska E., Krakowiak H. (2009). Assessment of body posture in preschool children from Warsaw. In K. Górniak, M. Lichota (Eds.), Correction and compensation of physical development disorders in children and youth (pp. 149-156). Biała Podlaska: ZWWF Biała Podlaska.

  • Kwiatkowski P. (2012). Scoliosis - diagnosis and physiotherapy treatment. Białystok: Reskol. [in Polish]

  • Trzcińska D., Świderska D., Tabor P., Olszewska E. (submitted for review) Environmental variation in somatic development and physical fitness of six-year-old children. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism.

  • Śliwa W., Chlebicka E. (2004). The influence of environmental factor on the incidence of postural defects. In J. Zagórski, H. Popławska, M. Skład (Eds.), Determinants of the development of children and adolescents from rural (pp. 507-513). Lublin: IMW, Lublin. [in Polish]

  • Skorupka E. (2011). Socio-economic status of the family in the context of children's posture. In J. Tatarczuk, R. Asienkiewicz, E. Skorupka (Eds.), Ontogenesis and health promotion in the context of medicine, anthropology and physical (pp. 567-584). Zielona Góra: Uniwersytet Zielonogórski. [in Polish]

  • Burdukiewicz A., Chromik K., Śliwa W. (2004). Posture of girls and boys aged 6-16 from the vicinity of Rabka. In J. Zagórski, H. Popławska, M. Skład (Eds.), Determinants of the development of children and adolescents from rural areas (pp. 427-436). Lublin: IMW, Lublin. [in Polish]

  • Śliwa W., Chlebicka E., Śliwa K. (2003). Environmental variation in somatic features and body posture of children aged fifteen. In J. Zagórski, M. Skład (Eds.), Determinants of the development of children and adolescents from rural areas (pp. 95-100). Lublin: IMW Lublin. [in Polish]


Journal + Issues