The Motor Development and Motor Skill Levels of 6-Year-Old Children from the Lublin Voivodeship

Elżbieta Cieśla 1
  • 1 Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, Department of Developmental Age Research


Introduction. The objective of the research was to assess the level of physical development and motor skills of six-yearold children from the Lublin voivodeship against the Polish population. Material and methods. The study included 2144 children, 997 girls and 1134 boys. To assess the level of physical fitness, selected, exercises from the EUROFIT test were used. In addition, children's ability to demonstrate simple motor skills during physical play and games was also assessed. The assessment involved: throwing a bag with the right hand, throwing a ball with both hands, gripping a bag with the right hand, kicking a ball with the right foot, jumping on the right leg and jumping with both feet. In addition, coordination during the exercises was evaluated. For measurement purposes, a four-point scale was used. The reference point was children from a nationwide sample. The results were statistically analyzed using the Student T-test and the nonparametric chi-square test. Results. Children from the Lublin region differ significantly in their level of physical fitness from children of the same age throughout Poland (p≤0.001). They achieved significantly lower results in tests assessing the strength of their arms, abdominal muscles and, the explosive strength of their lower limbs and in two tests evaluating speed (running speed: p≤0.001, hand movement speed: p≤0.001). Only in the test of their sense of balance, did both sexes, obtain significantly better results (p≤0.001). In addition, in the opinion of physical education teachers, children in the Lublin region exhibited significantly lower levels of skill when performing motor tasks. Conclusions. The results suggest that the motor potential of preschool children is being neglected, which seems to be indirectly caused by different factors in the external environment.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Osiński W. (2003). Kinesiology. Poznań: AWF. [in Polish]

  • 2. Cieśla E., Kopik A. (2003). Profile of the physical, motor and social development of preschool-aged children from rural areas. In J. Zagórski, H. Popławska, M. Skład (Eds.), Condi­tions affecting the development of rural children and adoles­cents (pp. 487-494). Lublin: IMW. [in Polish]

  • 3. Mleczko E., Winiarczyk T., Nieroda R. (2004). The direct and indirect influence of physical activity on the level of somatic and motor development of children and adolescents from the lesser Poland voivodeship in the light of path analysis. In J. Zagórski, H. Popławska, M. Skład (Eds.), Conditions affecting the development of rural children and adolescents (pp. 581-593). Lublin: IMW. [in Polish]

  • 4. Bielicki T., Waliszko A. (1992). Stature upward social mobil­ity and the nature of statural differences between social classes. Annals of Human Biology 19, 589-593.

  • 5. Przewęda R. (1991). On social conditions affecting fitness. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport 4, 3-14. [in Polish]

  • 6. Mleczko E. (2006). The biological development of rural chil­dren and adolescents in Polish auxological studies. In J. Sa- czuk (Ed.), Conditions affecting the development of rural children and adolescents (pp. 39-82). Biała Podlaska: AWF [in Polish]

  • 7. Salmon J., Timpero A. (2005). Trend's in children physical activity and weight status in high and low social-economic status areas of Melbourne, Victoria 1985-2001. Australian and NewZeeland Journal Public Health 29(4), 337-342.

  • 8. Raczyńska B., Michalska A., Czeczelewski J., Raczyński G. (2003). The effect of socio-economic and demographic de­terminants on the pattern of consumption of rural adoles­cents. Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny 1, 65-71.

  • 9. Popławska H. (2006). The Biological Development of Girls and Boys - from Rural Environments in Southern Podlasie - in the Light of Obesity Indexes. Warsaw: Studia i Monografie AWF Warszawa. [in Polish]

  • 10. Sekita B. (1988). Somatic Development and Physical Fitness among Children Ages 3-7 (from Research Workshops). War­saw: AWF. [in Polish]

  • 11. Kotarska K., Drohomirecka A. (2004). Biosocial conditions affecting the motor development of children from day-care centers and preschools in Szczecin and Stargard Szczeciński. Szczecin: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczeciń­skiego. [in Polish]

  • 12. Asienkiewicz R. (2005). From studies of the physical and motor skill development of preschool children from Zielona Góra. Słupskie Prace Biologiczne 1, 19-25. [in Polish]

  • 13.Zak S. (1991). Coordination Abilities among Children and Adolescents from a Major Urban Population against the Background of Somatic Conditions and Physical Activity. Kraków: AWF. [in Polish]

  • 14. Markowska M. (2007). Physical development and motor activity. In M. Markowska (Ed.), Six-Year-Olds in Poland. Lublin Voivodeship (pp. 49-66). Kielce: Text. [in Polish]

  • 15. Greve J., Alonso A., Bordini A.C., Camanho G.L. (2007). Correlation between body mass index and postural balance. Clinics 62(6), 717-720.

  • 16. Statistical Yearbook. (2007). Warsaw: GUS, 459-473. [in Pol­ish]

  • 17. Wilkin J. (2005). Rural areas under conditions of dynamic structural change. Retrieved June 1, 2013: 13.12.2011. [in Polish]

  • 18. Mleczko E. (1991). The Course of and Conditions Affecting Morfo-Functional Development in Children from Krakow Ages 7-14. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Monograficzne AWF Kra­ków. [in Polish]

  • 19. Zaradkiewicz T. (2003). The physical fitness of boys and girls from regions throughout Poland that have varied envi­ronmental conditions (using speed as an example). In J. Za­górski, M. Skład (Eds.), Conditions affecting the develop­ment of rural children and adolescents (pp. 501-508). Lublin: IMW. [in Polish]

  • 20. Freitas D., Maia J., Beunen G., Claessens A., Thomis M., Mar­ques A. et al. (2007). Socio-economic status, growth, physi­cal activity and fitness: The Madeira Growth Study. Annals of Human Biology 34(1), 107-122.

  • 21. Pea Reyes M.E, Tan S.K, Malina R.M. (2003).Urban-rural contrast in physical fitness of school children in Oaxaca, Mexico. Annals of Human Biology 6, 693-713.

  • 22. Przewęda R., Dobosz J.(2003). The Physical Condition ofPol- ish Youth. Warsaw: Studia i Monografie AWF Warszawa 98, 67-83. [in Polish]

  • 23. Momola I. (2005). Levels of motor skills mong preschool- aged children. Antropomotoryka 31(15), 47-54. [in Polish]

  • 24. Wilczewski A., Krawczyk B., Skład M., Saczuk J., Majle B. (1996). Physical development and fitness of children from urban and rural as determined by Eurofit test Battery. Biol­ogy of Sport 13(2), 113-126.

  • 25. Mehtap Ozdirenę M., Ozcan A., Akin F., Gelecek N. (2005). Physical fitness in rural children compared with urban children in Turkey. Pediatric International 47(1), 26-31.

  • 26. Cieśla E., Domagała Z., Markowska M., Mleczko E., Nowak­Starz G., Przychodni A. (2012). The differences in the level of biological health indicators for 7-year-old children living in different regions of Poland.Antropomotoryka 58, 33-46.

  • 27. Monyeki M.A., Koppes L.L.J., Kemper H.C.G., Monyeki K.D., Toriola A.L., Pienaar A.E. et al. (2005). Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children. European Journal of Clinical Nutri­tion 59. 877-883.


Journal + Issues