Background: Recently bismuth-based nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention as a dose amplification agent in radiation therapy due to high atomic number, high photoelectric absorption, low cost, and low toxicity.
Objectives: This study aims to calculate physical aspects of dose enhancement of bismuth-based nanoparticles in the presence of brachytherapy source by Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical method for low mono-energy. Materials and methods: After simulation and validation brachytherapy sources (Iodine-125 and Ytterbium-169) by Monte Carlo code, bismuth-based nanoparticles (bismuth, bismuth oxide, bismuth sulfide, and bismuth ferrite) were modeled in the sizes of 50 nm and 100 nm for two concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/ml. Dose enhancement factors for the bismuth-based nanoparticles were measured at both brachytherapy sources. Furthermore, the dose amplification was calculated with an analytic method at 30 keV mono-energy.
Results: Dose enhancement factor was greatest with pure bismuth nanoparticles, followed by bismuth oxide, bismuth sulfide and bismuth ferrite for both radiation source and simulation methods. The dose amplification for the bismuth-based nanoparticles increased with increasing size and concentration of nanoparticles.
Conclusion: The physical aspect dose enhancement of the nanoparticles was shown by Monte Carlo and analytic method. The results have proved bismuth-based nanoparticles deserve further study as a radiosensitizer.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
 Hwang C, Kim JM, Kim J. Influence of concentration, nanoparticle size, beam energy, and material on dose enhancement in radiation therapy. J Radiat Res. 2017;58:405-411.
 Hatano Y, Katsumura Y, Mozumder A. Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter: Recent Advances, Applications and Interfaces. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2010.
 McMahon SJ, Hyland WB, Muir MF, et al. Biological consequences of nanoscale energy deposition near irradiated heavy atom nanoparticles. Sci Rep. 2011;1:18.
 Khoo AM, Cho SH, Reynoso FJ, et al. Radiosensitization of Prostate Cancers In Vitro and In Vivo to Erbium-filtered Orthovoltage X-rays Using Actively Targeted Gold Nanoparticles. Scientific Reports. 2017;7:18044.
 Sung W, Schuemann J. Energy optimization in gold nanoparticle enhanced radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2018;63(13):135001.
 Rajaee A, Wensheng X, Zhao L, et al. Multifunctional Bismuth Ferrite Nanoparticles as Magnetic Localized Dose Enhancement in Radiotherapy and Imaging. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2018;14(6):1159-1168.
 Kuncic Z, Lacombe S. Nanoparticle radio-enhancement: principles, progress and application to cancer treatment. Phys Med Biol. 2018;63(2):27.
 Porcel E, Liehn S, Remita H, et al. Platinum nanoparticles: a promising material for future cancer therapy? Nanotechnology. 2010;21(8):85103.
 Ma M, Huang Y, Chen H, et al. Bi2S3-embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient drug delivery and interstitial radiotherapy sensitization Biomaterials. 2015;37:447-455.
 Deng J, Xu S, Hu W, et al. Tumor targeted, stealthy and degradable bismuth nanoparticles for enhanced X-ray radiation therapy of breast cancer. Biomaterials. 2018;154:24-33.
 Yao MH, Ma M, Chen Y, et al. Multifunctional Bi2S3/PLGA nanocapsule for combined HIFU/radiation therapy. Biomaterials. 2014;35(28):8197-8205.
 Xie H, Li Z, Sun Z, et al. Metabolizable Ultrathin Bi2Se3 Nanosheets in Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy. Small. 2016;12(30): 4136-4145.
 Gorbach SL. Bismuth therapy in gastrointestinal-diseases. Gastroenterology. 1990;99(3):863-875.
 Bravo LE, Realpe JL, Campo C, et al. Effects of acid suppression and bismuth medications on the performance of diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94(9):2380-2383.
 Wei B, Zhang X, Zhang C, et al. Facile Synthesis of Uniform-Sized Bismuth Nanoparticles for CT Visualization of Gastrointestinal Tract in Vivo. Acs Applied Mater Interfaces. 2016;8(20):12720-12726.
 Bi H, He F, Dong Y, et al. Bismuth Nanoparticles with “Light” Property Served as a Multifunctional Probe for X-ray Computed Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging. Chem Mat. 2018;30(10):3301-3307.
 Ai K, Liu Y, Liu J,. Large-Scale Synthesis of Bi2S3 Nanodots as a Contrast Agent for In Vivo X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging. Adv Mater. 2011;9(23):4886-4891.
 Cheng X, Yong Y, Dai Y, et al. Enhanced Radiotherapy using Bismuth Sulfide Nanoagents Combined with Photo-thermal Treatment. Theranostics. 2017;7(17):4087-4098.
 Liu J, Zheng X, Gu Z, et al. Bismuth sulfide nanorods as a precision nanomedicine for in vivo multimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy of tumor. Nanomedicine-Nanotechnology Biology and Medicine. 2016;12(2):486-487.
 Taha E, Djouider F, Banoqitah E. Monte Carlo simulations for dose enhancement in cancer treatment using bismuth oxide nanoparticles implanted in brain soft tissue. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2018;41(2):363-370.
 Du F, Lou J, Jiang R, et al. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized bismuth oxide nanoparticles for computed tomography imaging-guided radiotherapy of tumor. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:5973-5992.
 Stewart C, Konstantinov K, McKinnon S, et al. First proof of bismuth oxide nanoparticles as efficient radiosensitisers on highly radioresistant cancer cells. Phys Med. 2016;32(11):1444-1452.
 Hossain M, Su M. Nanoparticle Location and Material-Dependent Dose Enhancement in X-ray Radiation Therapy. J Phys Chem C. 2012;116(43):23047-23052.
 Karaiskos P, Papagiannis P, Sakelliou L, et al. Monte Carlo dosimetry of the selectSeed I-125 interstitial brachytherapy seed.Med Phys. 2011;28(8):1753-1760.
 Medich DC, Tries MA, Munro JJ. Monte Carlo characterization of an ytterbium-169 high dose rate brachytherapy source with analysis of statistical uncertainty. Med Phys. 2006;33(1):163-172.
 Paro AD, Hossain M, Webster TJ, Su M. Monte Carlo and analytic simulations in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Int J Nanomedicine. 2016;11:4735-4741.
 Ngwa W, Makrigiorgos GM, Berbeco RI. Applying gold nanoparticles as tumor-vascular disrupting agents during brachytherapy: estimation of endothelial dose enhancement. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55(21):6533-6548.