The aim of this study was to determine the extent of changes in physico-chemical and sensory properties of dry fermented sausages where pork backfat was partly replaced by flaxseed oil used as liquid (FXL), after encapsulation (FXE), and pre-emulsified with alginate (FXA) and soy protein isolate (FXI). During production and storage, similar pH values of all products were observed. FXL sausages had significantly lower (p<0.05) weight loss which led to significantly higher moisture content, significantly lower fat content, hardness and chewiness. Also, FXL sausages had the lowest grades in terms of sensory attributes, such as colour, odour, taste, texture and overall acceptability. Flaxseed oil preparations affected the parameters of instrumental colour analysis of sausages. All modified products had significantly higher yellowness (relative to control) and FXI sausages relative to other modified products. Regarding consumer sensory evaluation, FXA sausages stood out among modified products because all other modified products had significantly lower grades relative to control. The thirty-day storage period did not lead to significant changes (p>0.05) in any of the observed sensory characteristics.
1. Alejandre M., Poyato C., Ansorena D., Astiasarán, I., Linseed oil gelled emulsion: A successful fat replacer in dry fermented sausages. Meat Sci., 2016, 121, 107–113.
2. Beriain M.J., Gómez I., Petri E., Insausti K., Sarriés M.V., The effects of olive oil emulsified alginate on the physico-chemical, sensory, microbial, and fatty acid profiles of low-salt, inulin-enriched sausages. Meat Sci., 2011, 88, 189–197.
3. Bloukas J.G., Paneras E.D., Fournitzis G.C., Effect of replacing pork backfat with olive oil on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Sci., 1997, 45, 133–144.
4. Bolumar T., Toepfl S., Heinz V., Fat reduction and replacement in dry-cured fermented sausage by using high pressure processing meat as fat replacer and olive oil. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2015, 65, 175–182.
5. Bozkurt H., Bayram M., Colour and textural attributes of sucuk during ripening. Meat Sci., 2006, 73, 344–350.
6. Cheng, Q., Sun, D.W., Factors affecting the water holding capacity of red meat products: a review of recent research advances. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr., 2008, 48, 137–159.
7. Choo W.-S., Birch J., Dufour J.-P., Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed flaxseed oils. J. Food Compos. Anal., 2007, 20, 202–211.
8. Decker E.A., Park Y., Healthier meat products as functional foods. Meat Sci., 2010, 86, 49–55.
9. Delgado-Pan do G., Cofrades S., Ruiz-Capillas C., Teresa Solas M., Jiménez-Colmenero F., Healthier lipid combination oil-in-water emulsions prepared with various protein systems: An approach for development of functional meat products. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 2010, 112, 791–801.
10. Doyon M., La brecque J., Functional Foods: A conceptual definition. Br. Food J., 2008, 110, 1133–1149.
11. Giacomelli L., Mattea M., Ceballos C., Analysis and characterization of edible oils by chemometric methods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2006, 83, 303–308.
12. Gogus U., Sm ith C., n-3 Omega fatty acids: A review of current knowledge. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2010, 45, 417–436.
13. ISO 1443:1973. Meat and Meat Products. Determination of Total Fat Content, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
14. ISO 937:1978. Meat and Meat Products. Determination of Nitrogen Content, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
15. ISO 1442:1997. Meat and Meat Products. Determination of Moisture Content, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
16. Josquin N.M., Linssen J.P.H., Houben J.H., Quality characteristics of Dutch-style fermented sausages manufactured with partial replacement of pork back-fat with pure, pre-emulsified or encapsulated fish oil. Meat Sci., 2012, 90, 81–86.
17. Kaur S., Das M., Functional foods: An overview. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 2011, 20, 861–875.
18. Lorenzo J.M., Munekata P.E.S., Pateiro M., Campagnol P.C.B., Domínguez R., Healthy Spanish salchichón enriched with encapsulated n−3 long chain fatty acids in konjac glucomannan matrix. Food Res. Int., 2016, 89, 289–295.
19. Muguerza E., Ans orena D., Astiasarán I., Improvement of nutritional properties of Chorizo de Pamplona by replacement of pork backfat with soy oil. Meat Sci., 2003, 65, 1361–1367.
20. Muguerza E., Gime no O., Ansorena D., Bloukas J.G., Astiasarán I., Effect of replacing pork backfat with pre-emulsified olive oil on lipid fraction and sensory quality of Chorizo de Pamplona – a traditional Spanish fermented sausage. Meat Sci., 2001, 59, 251–258.
21. Olmedilla-Alonso B., Jiménez-Colmenero F., Sánchez-Muniz F.J., Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods. Meat Sci., 2013, 95, SI, 919–930.
22. Pardo J.E., Rubio M., Pardo A., Zied D.C., Álvarez-Ortí M., Improving the quality of grape seed oil by maceration with grinded fresh grape seeds. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 2011, 113, 1266–1272.
23. Pelser W.M., Linssen J. P.H., Legger A., Houben J.H., Lipid oxidation in n−3 fatty acid enriched Dutch style fermented sausages. Meat Sci., 2007, 75, 1–11.
24. Ramírez-Navas J.S., Rodrí guez De Stouvenel A., Characterization of Colombian quesillo cheese by spectrocolorimetry. Vitae, 2012, 19, 178–185.
25. Sánchez-Zapata E., Díaz-Vela J., Pérez-Chabela M., Pérez-Alvarez J., Fernández-López J., Evaluation of the effect of tiger nut fibre as a carrier of unsaturated fatty acids rich oil on the quality of dry-cured sausages. Food Bioprocess Technol., 2013, 6, 1181–1190.
26. Siró I., Kápolna E., Kápolna B., L ugasi A., Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance – A review. Appetite, 2008, 51, 456–467.
27. Soyer A., Ertas A.H., Effects of fat l evel and storage time on lipid and color stability of naturally fermented Turkish sausages (sucuk). J. Muscle Foods, 2007, 18, 330–340.
28. Stajić S., Stanišić N., Tomović V., Pet ričević M., Stanojković A., Radović Č., Gogić M., Farb- und Texturveränderungen während der Lagerung bei Sremska, einer traditionellen serbischen Rohwurst. Fleischwirtschaft, 2017, 8, 103–107 (in German, English abstract).
29. Stajić S., Živković D., Tomović V., Nedović V., Perunović M., Kovjanić N., Lević S., Stanišić N., The utilisation of grapeseed oil in improving the quality of dry fermented sausages. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2014, 49, 2356–2363.
30. Teh S.-S., Birch J., Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pres sed hemp, flax and canola seed oils. J. Food Compos. Anal., 2013, 30, 26–31.
31. Trautwein E., n-3 Fatty acids – physiological and technical aspects for their use in food. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 2001, 103, 45–55.
32. Triki M., Herrero A.M., Rodríguez-Salas L., Jiménez-Colmenero F., Ruiz-Capill as C., Chilled storage characteristics of low-fat, n-3 PUFA-enriched dry fermented sausage reformulated with a healthy oil combination stabilized in a konjac matrix. Food Contr., 2013, 31, 158–165.
33. Zhang W., Xiao S., Samaraweera H., Lee E.J., Ahn D.U., Improving functional val ue of meat products. Meat Sci., 2010, 86, SI, 15–31.