Emulsifying Properties of Dried Soy-Whey, Dried Tofu-Whey, and Their Isolated Proteins

Open access

Abstract

This paper focuses on the comparative study of emulsifying properties of dried tofu-whey, dried soy-whey and their isolated proteins. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared at equivalent protein concentration (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/100 mL), using sunflower oil as lipid phase (oil mass fraction = 0.33). Tofu-whey and soy-whey were dehydrated by freeze-drying (LTW and LSW, respectively) or thermal-drying (DTW and DSW, respectively). Moreover, a heated LSW sample in anhydrous condition (h-LSW) was included. The emulsion formation and stability at rest was evaluated using a vertical scan analyzer, according to multiple light scattering theory, particle size and oiling off measurements. Even though the stability to gravitational separation and coalescence increased with increasing protein concentration, freeze-dried whey samples exhibited a higher ability to form and stabilize emulsions respect to that of thermally-dried ones, especially for those obtained from soy-whey. Moreover, h-LSW emulsions were more stable than that of LSW sample presumably due to protein glycosylation. The global emulsion stability decreased in the order: LTW>DTW>h-LSW>LSW>DSW. Moreover, at equivalent protein concentration in the continuous phase, the isolation of proteins from lyophilized whey-samples by treatment with cold acetone (LTW-P, LSW-P and h-LSW-P, respectively) improved their emulsifying properties. Again, this improvement was more pronounced for samples obtained from soy-whey, probably due to partial protein denaturation associated to treatment with the organic solvent. In conclusion, this paper should be considered as basis for further studies concerned with the potential application of soy-whey and tofu-whey proteins as emulsifiers in different systems.

1. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. Sixteen Edition, 3rd Revision, Volume II., 1997, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.

2. Benedetti S., Prudêncio E.S., Nunes G.L., Guizoni K., Fogaça L.R., Petrus J.C.C., Antioxidant properties of tofu whey concentrate by freeze concentration and nanofiltration processes. J. Food Eng., 2015, 160, 49–55.

3. Chen Y., Xu Z., Zhang C., Kong X., Hua Y., Heat-induced inactivation mechanisms of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor in soymilk processing. Food Chem., 2014, 154, 108–116.

4. Huang H., Kwok K-C., Liang H.H., Inhibitory activity and conformation changes of soybean trypsin inhibitors induced by ultrasound. Ultrason. Sonochem., 2008, 15, 724–730.

5. Jafari S.M., Assadpoor E., He Y., Bhandari B., Re-coalescence of emulsion droplets during high-energy emulsification. Food Hydrocolloid., 2008, 22, 1191–1202.

6. Kao F.J., Su N. W., Lee M.S., Effect of calcium concentration in soymilk on the microstructure of firm tofu and the protein constitutions in tofu whey. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, 6211–6216.

7. Kasran M., Cui S.W., Goff H.D., Emulsifying properties of soy whey protein isolate-fenugreek gum conjugates in oil-in-water emulsion model system. Food Hydrocolloid., 2013, 30, 691–697.

8. Lajolo F.M., Genovese M.I., Nutritional significance of lectins and enzyme inhibitors from legumes. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 6592–6598.

9. Li R., Wu Z., Wang Y., Liu W., Pilot study of recovery of whey soy proteins from soy whey wastewater using batch foam fractionation. J. Food Eng., 2014, 142, 201–209.

10. Liu W., Zhang H.X., Wu Z.L., Wang Y.J., Wang L.J., Recovery of isoflavones aglycones from soy whey wastewater using foam fractionation and acidic hydrolysis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2013, 61, 7366–7372.

11. Marshall M.R., Ash analysis. 2009, in: Food Analysis. Fourth Edition (ed. S. Nielsen). Springer, New York, pp. 105–116.

12. Matemu A.O., Kayahara H., Murasawa H., Nakamura S., Importance of size and charge of carbohydrate chains in the preparation of functional glycoproteins with excellent emulsifying properties from tofu whey. Food Chem., 2009, 114, 1328–1334.

13. McClements D.J., Protein-stabilized emulsions. Curr. Opin. Colloid Int. Sci., 2004, 9, 305–313.

14. McClements D.J., Critical reviews of techniques and methodologies for characterization of emulsion stability. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2007, 47, 611–649.

15. Meng S., Chang S., Gillen A.M., Zhang Y., Protein and quality analyses of accessions of USDA soybean germplasm collection for tofu production. Food Chem., 2016, 213, 31–39.

16. Mengual O, Meunier G., Cayré I., Puech K., Snabre P., Turbiscan MA 2000: multiple light scattering measurements for concentrated emulsion and suspension instability analysis. Talanta, 1999, 50, 445–456.

17. Oliver C.M., Melton L.D., Stanley R.A., Creating proteins with novel functionality via the Maillard reaction. A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2006, 46, 337–350.

18. Palanuwech J., Potineni R., Roberts R.F., Coupland J.N., A method to determine free fat in emulsions. Food Hydrocolloid., 2003, 17, 55–62.

19. Palazolo G.G., Sobral P.A., Wagner J.R., Dehydrated tofu whey as cryoprotectant in protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 2013, 50, 773–781.

20. Palazolo G.G., Sorgentini D.A., Wagner J.R., Emulsifying properties and surface behavior of native and denatured whey soy proteins in comparison with other proteins. Creaming stability of oil-in-water emulsions. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2004, 81, 625–632.

21. Ray M., Rousseau D., Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions using mixtures of denatured soy whey proteins and soluble soybean polysaccharides. Food Res. Int., 2013, 52, 298–307.

22. Shen Y-R., Kuo M-I., Effects of different carrageenan types on the rheological and water holding properties of tofu. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 2017, 78, 122–128.

23. Singh A. Banerjee R., Peptide enriched functional food adjunct from soy whey: a statistical optimization study. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 2013, 22, 65–71.

24. Sobral P.A., Palazolo G.G., Wagner J.R., Thermal behavior of soy protein fractions depending on their preparation methods, individual interactions, and storage conditions. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58, 10092–10100.

25. Sobral P. A., Wagner J. R. Thermal properties of soybean whey and its proteins. 2007, in: Functional Properties of Food Components (ed. C.E. Lupano). Research Signpost, Kerala, India, pp. 57–76.

26. Stoscheck C.M., Quantitation of protein. Method Enzymol., 1990, 182, 50–68.

27. Thanasukarn P., Pongsawatmanit R., McClements D. J., Influence of the emulsifier type on freeze-thaw stability of hydrogenated palm oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocolloid., 2004, 18, 1033–10043.

28. Vagadia B.H., Vanga S. K., Raghavan V., Inactivation method of soybean trypsin inhibitor. A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 2017, 64, 115–125.

29. van Aken G.A. Coalescence mechanisms in protein-stabilized emulsions. 2004, in: Food Emulsions. Fourth edition revised and expanded (eds. S.E. Friberg, K. Larsson, J. Sjöblom). Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 310–336.

30. van der Ven C., Matser A.M., van den Berg R.M., Inactivation of soybean trypsin inhibitors and lipoxygenase by high-pressure processing. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 1087–1092.

Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences

The Journal of Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.760



CiteScore 2017: 1.95

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.651
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.113

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 76 76 56
PDF Downloads 44 44 30