Profiling of the Contents of Amino Acids, Water-Soluble Vitamins, Minerals, Sugars and Organic Acids in Turkish Hazelnut Varieties

Open access


Proximate composition, profiles of amino acids, sugars, organic acids, vitamins and minerals of fourteen Turkish hazelnut varieties harvested in 2013 and 2014 were investigated. Glutamic acid, arginine and aspartic acid were the most predominant amino acids, representing of about 50% of hazelnut protein. Individual amino acid profiles showed significant differences depending upon the harvest year (p<0.05). Concentration of sucrose was the highest followed by fructose, glucose, stachyose, raffinose and myo-inositol, respectively. Phytic acid was predominant organic acid in all varieties, followed by malic acid. Independent of the variety, hazelnuts were rich in pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxal, biotin, thiamine, nicotinamide. Pantothenic and nicotinic acid were significantly higher in most of the varieties in harvest year 2014. Potassium was the most predominant mineral, followed by magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron and copper, respectively.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Açkurt F. Özdemir M. Biringen G. Löker M. Effect of geographical origin and variety on vitamin and mineral composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) varieties cultivated in Turkey. Food Chem. 1999 65 309–313.

  • 2. Alasalvar C. Shahidi F. Liyanapathirana C.M. Ohshima T. Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). 1. Compositional characteristics. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003 51 3790–3796.

  • 3. Alasalvar C. Amaral J.S. Shahidi F. Functional lipid characteristics of Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006 54 10177–10183.

  • 4. Alasalvar C. Amaral J.S. Satır G. Shahidi F. Lipid characteristics and essential minerals of native Turkish hazelnut varieties (Corylus avellana L.). Food Chem. 2009 113 919–925.

  • 5. Alasalvar C. Pelvan E. Amarowicz R. Effect of roasting on taste-active compounds of Turkish hazelnut varieties (Corylus avellana L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010 58 8674–8679.

  • 6. Alasalvar C. Topal B. Serpen A. Bahar B. Pelvan E. Gökmen V. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2012 60 6323–6332.

  • 7. Amaral J.S. Casal S. Citova I. Santos A. Seabra R.M. Oliveira B.P.P. Characterization of several hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars based in chemical fatty acid and sterol composition. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2006 222 274–280.

  • 8. AOAC. 1990 Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington.

  • 9. Belitz H.D. Grosch W. Schieberle P. Vitamins. 2009 in: Food Chemistry 4th rev. and extended ed. Springer Berlin pp. 403–420.

  • 10. Cerbulis J. Carbohydrates in hazel (Corylus'sp.). I. Major sugar component in Turkish hazelnut kernel. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1955 77 6054–6056.

  • 11. Cristofori V. Ferramondo S. Bertazza G. Bignami C. Nut and kernel traits and chemical composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2008 88 1091–1098.

  • 12. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2013 FAO statistics division. []. Accessed 13 June 2017.

  • 13. Hazelnut Promotion Group. 2012 Turkey's hazelnut. []. Accessed 13 June 2017.

  • 14. Kıralan S. Yorulmaz A. Şimşek A. Tekin A. Classification of Turkish hazelnut oils based on their triacylglycerol structures by chemometric analysis. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2015 240 679–688.

  • 15. Kocadağlı T. Özdemir K.S. Gökmen V. Effects of infusion conditions and decaffeination on free amino acid profiles of green and black tea. Food Res. Int. 2013 53 720–725.

  • 16. Köksal A.I. Artik N. Şimşek A. Güneş N. Nutrient composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) varieties cultivated in Turkey. Food Chem. 2006 99 509–515.

  • 17. Ozdemir F. Akinci I. Physical and nutritional properties of four major commercial Turkish hazelnut varieties. J. Food Eng. 2004 63 341–347.

  • 18. Özdemir M. Devres O. Turkish hazelnuts: Properties and effect of microbiological and chemical changes on quality. Food Rev. Int. 1999 15 309–333.

  • 19. Parcerisa J. Boatella J. Codony R. Rafecas M. Castellote A.I. Garcia J. Lopez A. Romero A. Comparison of fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of different hazelnut varieties (Corylus avellana L.) cultivated in Catalonia (Spain). J. Agric. Food Chem. 1995 43 13–16.

  • 20. Ruggeri S. Cappelloni M. Gambelli L. Carnovale E. Chemical composition and nutritive value of nuts grown in Italy. Ital. J. Food Sci. 1998 10 243–252.

  • 21. Scott J.M. Folate and vitamin B12. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1999 58 441–448.

  • 22. Tas N.G. Gökmen V. Profiling triacylglycerols fatty acids and tocopherols in hazelnut varieties grown in Turkey. J. Food Compost. Anal. 2015 44 115–121.

  • 23. Venkatachalam M. Sathe S.K. Chemical composition of selected edible nut seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006 54 4705–4714.

  • 24. Yılmaz C. Gökmen V. Compositional characteristics of sour cherry kernel and its oil as influenced by different extraction and roasting conditions. Ind. Crops Prod. 2013 49 130–135.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.760

CiteScore 2018: 1.92

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.621
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.908

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 827 381 10
PDF Downloads 459 234 3