Effect of pH Changes on Antioxidant Capacity and the Content of Betalain Pigments During the Heating of a Solution of Red Beet Betalains

Open access

Abstract

Red beets and their products are mainly consumed after processing. In this study, the effect of pH on changes in antioxidant capacity (AC) and the content of betalain pigments were analysed during the heating of a betalain preparation solution. With pH ranging from 4 to 9 during the heat-treatment, the content of red pigments decreased depending on the pH level of the sample. The losses of red pigments in the investigated betalain preparation solution increased along with rising pH levels of the heated solution. The greatest losses were recorded at pH of 9.0. An opposite correlation was observed for yellow pigments. The content of yellow pigments in the heated betalain preparation solution was increasing along with increasing pH. The most pronounced increase in the content of yellow pigments was found at pH of 6.5 and 7.0. At the same time, the heated betalain preparation solution was shown to exhibit a higher antioxidant capacity at pH of 6.0 (14.9 μmol Trolox/mL) than at pH of 4.0 (12.6 μmol Trolox/mL). It was observed that the increase in the antioxidant capacity in heated betalain preparation solutions with pH in the 6.0–6.5 range occurred as a result of increased concentrations of neobetanin, assessed by HPLC, within the pH range from 5.0 to 6.5.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Alard D. Wray V. Grotjahn L. Reznik H. Strack D. Neobetanin: isolation and identification from Beta vulgaris. Phytochemistry 1985 24 2383–2385.

  • 2. Cai Y. Sun M. Schielmann W. Corke H. Chemical stability and colorant properties of betaxanthin pigments from Celosia argentea. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001 49 4429–4435.

  • 3. Czapski J. Mikołajczyk K. Kaczmarek M. Relationship between antioxidant capacity of red beet juice and contents of its betalain pigments. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2009 59 119–122.

  • 4. Herbach K.M. Stintzing F.C. Carle R. Betalain stability and degradation – structural and chromatic aspects. J. Food Sci. 2006 71 R41-R50.

  • 5. Herbach K.M. Stintzing F.C. Carle R. Impact of thermal treatment on color and pigment pattern of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) preparations. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2004 69 C491–C498.

  • 6. Kanner J. Harel S. Granit R. Betalains – A new class of dietary cationized antioxidants. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001 49 5178–5185.

  • 7. Nemzer B. Pietrzakowski Z. Spórna A. Stalica P. Thresher W. Michałowski T. Wybraniec S. Betalainic and nutritional profiles of pigment-enriched red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) dried extracts. Food Chem. 2011 127 42–53.

  • 8. Nilsson T. Studies into the pigments in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. rubra L.). Lantbrukshogskolans Annaler. 1970 36 179–219.

  • 9. Pasch J.H. Elbe J.H. Betanine stability in buffered solutions containing organic acids metal cations antioxidants or sequestrants. J. Food Sci. 1979 44 72–74.

  • 10. Pedreno M.A. Escribano J. Studying the oxidation and the antiradical activity of betalain from beetroot. J. Biol. Educ. 2000 35 49–51.

  • 11. Piattelli M. Minale L. Pigments of centrospermae –II. Distribution of betacyanins. Phytochemistry 1964 3 547–557.

  • 12. Re R. Pellegrini N. Proteggente A. Pannala A. Yang M. Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1999 26 1231–1237.

  • 13. Stintzing F.C. Conrad J. Klaiber I. Beifuss U. Carle R. Structural investigations on betacyanin pigments by LC NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Phytochemistry 2004 65 415–422.

  • 14. Stintzing F.C. Schieber A. Carle R. Identification of betalains from yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002 50 2303–2307.

  • 15. Strack D. Vogt T. Schielmann W. Recent advances in betalain research. Phytochemistry 2003 62 247–269.

  • 16. Von Elbe J.H. Maing I.Y. Amundson C.H. Color stability of betanin. J. Food Sci. 1974 39 334–337.

  • 17. Zakharova N.S. Petrova T.A. Relationship between the structure and antioxidant activity of various betalains. Prikl. Biokhim. Mikrobiol. 1998 34 199–202.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.760



CiteScore 2018: 1.92

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.621
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.908

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 800 490 15
PDF Downloads 380 239 7