The antioxidant potential and phenolic compounds content were investigated in ten white bean varieties widely consumed in Turkey. Total phenolic contents of seeds varied between 0.33 and 0.63 mg GAE/g. The Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) determined by the ABTS assay and the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) of bean varieties ranged from 3.50 to 5.17 μmol Trolox/g seed and from 7.99 to 11.20 μmol Fe2+/g seed, respectively. Strong correlations were found between total phenolic content and FRAP (r=0.850) and between TEAC and FRAP (r=0.734). The antioxidant activity was investigated in a β-carotene-linoleic acid model system, as well. Differences in the inhibition of emulsion oxidation by extracts of white bean varieties were slight. The RP-HPLC fingerprint analysis of extracts showed the presence of five dominant phenolic compounds which were described as ferulic or caffeic acids derivatives. Four of them significantly contributed to reducing power and antiradical activity against ABTS•+ of extracts.
Agostini-Costa T.S., Teodoro A.F.P., Alves R.B.N., Braga L.R., Ribeiro I.F., Silva J.P., Quintana L.G., Burle M.L., Total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity of Lima Beans conserved in a Brazilian Genebank. Cienc. Rural., 2015, 45, 335–341.
Akond A.S.M.G.M., Khandaker L., Berthold J., Gates L., Peters K., Delong H., Hossain K., Anthocyanin, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of common bean. Am. J. Food Technol., 2011, 6, 385–394.
Amarowicz R., Karamać M., Kmita-Głażewska H., Troszyńska A., Kozłowska H., Antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions of everlasting pea, faba bean and broad bean. J. Food Lipids, 1996, 3, 199–211.
Amarowicz R., Troszyńska A., Baryłko-Pikielna N., Shahidi F., Polyphenolics extracts from legume seeds: Correlations between total antioxidant activity, total phenolics content, tannins content and astringency. J. Food Lipids, 2004, 11, 278–286.
Amarowicz R., Pegg R.B., Legumes as a source of natural anti-oxidants. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 2008, 110, 865–878.
Amarowicz R., Estrella I., Hernández T., Troszyńka A., Antioxidant activity of extract of adzuki bean and its fractions. J. Food Lipids, 2008, 15, 119–136.
Anton A.A., Gary Fulcher R.G., Arntfield S.D., Physical and nutritional impact of fortification of corn starch-based extruded snacks with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flour: Effects of bean addition and extrusion cooking. Food Chem., 2009, 113, 989–996.
Benzie I.F.F., Strain J.J., The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘‘antioxidant power’’: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem., 1996, 239, 70–76.
Boye J., Zare F., Pletch A., Pulse proteins: Processing, characterization, functional properties and applications in food and feed. Food Res. Int., 2010, 43, 414–431.
Câmara C.R.S., Urrea C.A., Schlegel V., Pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as a functional food: Implications on human health. Agriculture, 2013, 3, 90–111.
Chen P.X., Tang Y., Marcone M.F., Pauls P.K., Zhang B., Liu R., Tsao R., Characterization of free, conjugated and bound phenolics and lipophilic antioxidants in regular and non-darkening cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem., 2015, 185, 298–308.
Curran J., The nutritional value and health benefits of pulses in relation to obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Br. J. Nutr., 2012, 108, S1-S2.
Djordjevic T.M., Šiler-Marinkovic S.S., Dimitrijevic-Brankovic S.I., Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in some cereals and legumes. Int. J. Food Prop., 2011, 14, 175–184.
Gallegos-Infante J.A., Rocha-Guzman N.E., Gonzalez-Laredo R.F., Ochoa-Martinez L.A., Corzo N., Bello-Perez L.A., Medina-Torres L., Peralta-Alvarez L.E., Quality of spaghetti pasta containing Mexican common bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem., 2010, 11, 1544–1549.
Gulewicz P., Martinez-Villaluenga C., Kasprowicz-Potocka M., Frias J., Non-nutritive compounds in Fabaceae family seeds and the improvement of their nutritional quality by traditional processing – a review. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2014, 64, 75–89.
Hayat I., Ahmad A., Masud T., Ahmed A., Bashir S., Nutritional and health perspectives of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): an overview. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2014, 54, 580–92.
Karamać M., Amarowicz R., Weidner S., Shahidi F., Antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions of white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. Food Lipids, 2004, 11, 165–177.
Karamać M., Biskup I., Kulczyk A., Fractionation of buckwheat seed phenolics and analysis of their antioxidant activity. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2015, 65, 243–249.
Luthria D.L., Pastor-Corrales M.A., Phenolic acids content of fifteen dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. J. Food Compos. Anal., 2006, 19, 205–211.
Madhujith T., Naczk M., Shahidi F., Antioxidant activity of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. Food Lipids, 2004, 11, 220–233.
Madhujith T., Shahidi F., Antioxidant potential of pea beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. Food Sci., 2005, 70, S85–S90.
Marathe S.A., Rajalakshmi V., Jamdar S.N., Sharma A., Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2011, 49, 2005–2012.
Miller H.E., A simplified method for evaluation of antioxidant. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 1971, 45, 91.
Moreno-Jiménez M.R., Cervantes-Cardoza V., Gallegos-Infante J.A., González-Laredo R.F., Estrella I., García-Gasca T.D.J., Herrera-Carrera E., Díaz-Rivas J.O., Rocha-Guzmán N.E., Phenolic composition changes of processed common beans: Their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in intestinal cancer cells. Food Res. Int., 2015, 76, 79–85.
Oomah B.D., Cardador-Martinez A., Loarca-Piña G., Phenolics and antioxidative activities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. Sci. Food Agric., 2005, 85, 935–942.
Orak H.H., Karamać M., Amarowicz R., Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds of red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Oxid. Commun., 2015, 38, 67–76.
Prior R.L., Wu X.L., Schaich K., Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 4290–4302.
Ramirez-Jiménez A.K., Reynoso-Camacho R., Mendoza-Díaz S., Loarca-Piña G., Functional and technological potential of dehydrated Phaseolus vulgaris L. flours. Food Chem., 2014, 161, 254–260.
Re R., Pellegrini N., Proteggente A., Pannala A., Yang M., Rice-Evans C., Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 1999, 26, 1231–1237.
Ross K.A., Beta T., Arntfield S.D., A comparative study on the phenolic acids identified and quantified in dry beans using HPLC as affected by different extraction and hydrolysis methods. Food Chem., 2009, 113, 336–344.
Singh S.P., Production and utilization. 1999, in: Common Bean Improvement in the Twenty-First Century (ed. S. Singh). Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 1–24.
Suárez-Martínez S.E., Ferriz-Martínez R.A., Campos-Vega R., Elton-Puente J.E., de la Torre-Carbot K., García-Gasca T., Bean seeds: leading nutraceutical source for human health. CyTA-J. Food, 2016, 14, 131–137.
Xu B.J., Yuan S.H., Chang S.K.C., Comparative analyses of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and color of cool season legumes and other selected food legumes. J. Food Sci., 2007, 72, S167–S177.