Physico-Chemical, Enzymatic, Mineral and Colour Characterization of Three Different Varieties of Honeys from Kashmir Valley of India with a Multivariate Approach

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The present study was undertaken to determine the physico-chemical properties (moisture content, reducing sugars, proline content, electrical conductivity, ash content, pH, titrable acidity, HMF, water activity, total soluble solids and total solids), enzymatic activity (diastase and invertase), colour characteristics (mmpfund, ABS450 and CIE L*a* b*) and mineral content (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) of three different varieties of honeys from Kashmir valley of India (acacia honey, pine honeydew and multifloral honey). Of the honey samples analysed, only pine honeydew were grouped in dark category of honey (L*<50) while acacia honey and multifloral honey were confirmed as light coloured honeys (L*>50) and possessed both red and yellow components. The concentrations of mineral content were found highest in pine honeydew followed by multi floral and least in acacia honey. All the physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activity indicated that all the three analysed varieties of honey met the criteria set by the International Honey Commission and revised codex standards for honey. The source of honey had a significant effect (p<0.05) on physico-chemical characteristics, enzymatic activity, mineral content and colour properties. Strong and positive correlations exhibited among minerals, colour (mmpfund) and L* value indicated that dark coloured honey contained high mineral content. Multivariate analysis proved to be an effective tool in classifying the three varieties of honey based on physico-chemical characteristics, enzymatic activity, mineral content and colour properties.

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