Physico-Chemical, Enzymatic, Mineral and Colour Characterization of Three Different Varieties of Honeys from Kashmir Valley of India with a Multivariate Approach

Open access

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to determine the physico-chemical properties (moisture content, reducing sugars, proline content, electrical conductivity, ash content, pH, titrable acidity, HMF, water activity, total soluble solids and total solids), enzymatic activity (diastase and invertase), colour characteristics (mmpfund, ABS450 and CIE L*a* b*) and mineral content (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) of three different varieties of honeys from Kashmir valley of India (acacia honey, pine honeydew and multifloral honey). Of the honey samples analysed, only pine honeydew were grouped in dark category of honey (L*<50) while acacia honey and multifloral honey were confirmed as light coloured honeys (L*>50) and possessed both red and yellow components. The concentrations of mineral content were found highest in pine honeydew followed by multi floral and least in acacia honey. All the physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activity indicated that all the three analysed varieties of honey met the criteria set by the International Honey Commission and revised codex standards for honey. The source of honey had a significant effect (p<0.05) on physico-chemical characteristics, enzymatic activity, mineral content and colour properties. Strong and positive correlations exhibited among minerals, colour (mmpfund) and L* value indicated that dark coloured honey contained high mineral content. Multivariate analysis proved to be an effective tool in classifying the three varieties of honey based on physico-chemical characteristics, enzymatic activity, mineral content and colour properties.

1. Acquarone C., Buera P., Elizalde B., Pattern of pH and electrical conductivity upon honey dilution as a complementary tool for discriminating geographical origin of honeys. Food Chem., 2006, 101, 695-703.

2. Ahmed J., Prabhu S.T., Raghavan G.S.V., Ngadi M., Physicochemical, rheological, calometric and dielectric behavior of selected Indian honey. J. Food. Eng., 2007, 79, 1207-1213.

3. AOAC., Official Method of Analysis of the Association of the Analytical Chemists. 2012.

4. Azeredo L.C., Azeredo M.A.A., Souza S.R., Dutra V.M.L., Protein contents and physicochemical properties in honey samples of Apis mellifera of different floral origins. Food Chem., 2003, 80, 249-254.

5. Beretta G., Granata P., Ferrero M., Orioli M., Facino R.M., Standardization of antioxidant properties of honey by a combination of spectrophotometric/ fluorimetric assays and chemometrics. Anal. Chim. Acta., 2005, 533, 185-191.

6. Bhat M.S., Shaheen M., Zaman R., Muhee A., Mineral Inter-Relationship among soil, forage and dairy cattle in Kashmir India. Vet. World., 2011, 4, 550-553.

7. Blasa M., Candiracci M., Accorsi A., Piacentini M.P., Albertini M.C., Piatti E., Raw Millefiori honey is packed full of antioxidants. Food Chem., 2006, 97, 217-222.

8. Bouseta A., Scheirman V., Collin S., Flavor and free amino acid composition of lavender and eucalyptus honeys. J. Food Sci., 1996, 61, 683-694.

9. Chudzinska M., Baralkiewicz D., Estimation of honey authenticity by multielements characteristics using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with chemometrics. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2010, 48, 284-290.

10. Codex Alimentarius Commission., Revised standards for honey. Codex Standard 12-1981. Rev 1 (1987), Rev 2 (2001), Rome: FAO.

11. Conti M.E., Stripekis J., Campanella L., Cucina D., Tudino M.B., Characterization of Italian honeys (Marche Region) on the basis of their mineral content and some typical quality parameters.Chem. Cent. J., 2007, 1, 1-14.

12. Devillers J., Dore J.C., Marenco M., Poirier-Duchene F., Galand N., Viel C., Chemometrical analysis of 18 metallic and non metallic elements found in honeys sold in France. J. Sci. Food. Agric., 2002, 50, 5998-6007.

13. Dinkov D.H., Quality parameters of Bulgarian kinds of bee honey. Mac. Vet. Rev., 2014, 37, 35-41.

14. Duman A., Sezer C., Oral N.B., Kars’ta Satis a Sunulan Suzme Ballarin Kalite Niteliklerinin Aras tirilmasi. Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi. 2008, 14, 89-94.

15. Escuredo O., Fernandez-Gonzalez M., Carmen S.M., Differentiation of blossom honey and honeydew honey from Northwest Spain. Agriculture., 2012, 2, 25-37.

16. Finola M.S., Lasagno M.C., Marioli J.M., Microbiological and chemical characterization of honeys from central Argentina. Food Chem., 2007, 100, 1649-1653.

17. Fredes C., Montenegro G., Heavy metal and other trace elements contents in honey bee in Chile. Ciencia e investigacion agrarian., 2006, 33, 50-58.

18. Gheldof N., Wang X.H., Engeseth N.J., Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honeys from various floral sources. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 5870-5877.

19. Gonzalez-Miret M.L., Terrab A., Hernanz D., Fernandez-Recamales M.A., Heredia F.J., Multivariate correlation between colour and mineral composition of honeys and by their botanical origin. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53, 2575-2580.

20. Hasan S.H., Effect of storage and processing temperature on honey quality. J. Babylon Univ. Pure Appl. Sci., 2013, 21, 2244- -2253.

21. International Honey Commission., Harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission. 2009. URL: http:// www.bee-hexagon.net/en/network.htm. Accessed 14-02-2013.

22. Isopescu R.D., Josceanu A.M., Minca I., Colta T., Postelnicescu P., Mateescu C., Characterization of Romanian honey based on physicochemical properties and multivariate analysis. Revista de Chimie -Bucharest., 2014, 65, 381-385.

23. Juszczak L., Socha R., Roznowski J., Fortuna T., Nalepka K., Physicochemical properties and quality parameters of herbhoneys. Food Chem., 2009, 113, 538-542.

24. Kadar M., Juan-Borras M., Hellebrandova M., Domenech E., Escriche I., Differentiation of Acacia, Sunflower and Tilia honeys from different countries based on sugar composition, physicochemical and colour parameters. Bulletin USAMV Agriculture., 2010, 67, 252-258.

25. Kamboj R., Bera B.M., Nanda V., Evaluation of physico-chemical properties, trace metal content and antioxidant activity of Indian honeys. Inter. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2013, 48, 578-587.

26. Karabagias I.K., Badeka A., Kontakos S., Karabournioti S., Kontominas M.G., Characterization and classification of Greek pine honeys according to their geographical origin based on volatiles, physicochemical parameters and chemometrics. Food Chem., 2014, 146, 548-557.

27. Kasperova J., Nagy J., Popelka P., Dicakova Z., Nagyova, A., Mala P., Physico-chemical indicators and identification of selected Slovak honeys based on colour measurement. Acta. Vet. Scand., 2012, 81, 57-61.

28. Khalil M.I., Moniruzzaman M., Boukraa L., Benhanifia M., Islam M.A., Islam M.N., Sulaiman S.A., Gan S.H., Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey. Molecules, 2012, 17, 11199-11215.

29. Lazaridou A., Biliaderis C.G., Bacandritsos N., Sabatini A.G., Composition, thermal and rheological behaviour of selected Greek honeys. J. Food Eng., 2004, 64, 9-21.

30. Liberato M.T.C., Morais S.M., Magalhaes C.E.C., Magalhaes I.L., Cavalcanti D.B., Silva M.M.O., Physico-chemical properties, mineral, and protein content of honey samples from Ceara state, Northeastern Brazil. Food Sci. Technol. (Campas), 2013, 33, 38-46.

31. Louveaux J., Maurizio A., Vorwohl G., Methods of melissopalynology. Bee World, 1978, 59, 139-157.

32. Marghitas L.A., Dezmirean D., Adela M., Otilia B., Laura L., Stefan B., Physicochemical and bioactive properties of different floral origin honeys from Romania. Food Chem., 2009, 112, 863-867.

33. Mateo R., Bosch-Reig F., Classification of Spanish unifloral honeys by discriminant analysis of electrical conductivity, colour, water content, sugars, and pH. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 393-400.

34. Meda A., Lamien C.E., Romito M., Millogo J., Nacoulma O.G., Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem., 2005, 91, 571-577.

35. Nanda V., Bera M.B., Bakhshi A.K., Optimization of process parameters to establish the quality attributes of hydroxymethylfurfural content and diastatic activity of sunflower (Helianthus annus) honey using response surface methodology. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2006, 222, 64-70.

36. Nanda V., Sarkar B., Sharma H., Bawa A., Physico-chemical properties and estimation of mineral content in honey produced from different plants in Northern India. J. Food Comp. Anal., 2003, 16, 613-619.

37. Nanda V., Singh B., Kukerja V.K., Bawa A.S., Characterization of honey produced from different fruit plants of northern India. Inter. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2009, 44, 2629-2636.

38. Nayik G.A., Nanda V., Characterization of the volatile profile of unifloral honey from Kashmir valley of India by using solidphase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2015, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, DOI: 10.1007/s00217-015-2413-2.

39. Ouchemoukh S., Louaileche H., Schweitzer P., Physico-chemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of some Algerian honeys. Food Contr., 2007, 18, 52-58.

40. Pan J.Z., Ji C.Y., General rheological model for natural honeys in China. J. Food Eng., 1998, 36, 165-168.

41. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. URL: http://pib. nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=96239. Accessed 23-12-2013.

42. Saric G., Matkovic D., Hruskar M., Vahcic N., Characterization and classification of Croatian honey by physicochemical parameters. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 2008, 46, 355-367.

43. Saxena S., Gautam S., Sharma A., Physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of some Indian honeys. Food Chem., 2010, 118, 391-397.

44. Soria A.C., Gonzalez M., De Lorenzo C., Martinez-Castro I., Sanz J., Characterization of artisanal honeys from Madrid (Central Spain) on the basis of their melissopalynological, physicochemical and volatile composition data. Food Chem., 2004, 85, 121-130.

45. Terrab A., Escudero M.L., Gonzalez-Miret M.L., Heredia F.J., Colour characteristics of honeys as induced by pollen grain content: A multivariate study. J. Sci. Food Agric., 2004, 84, 380-396

46. Terrab A., Valdes B., Diez D.M.J., Pollen analysis of honey from the Gharb region (NW Morocco). Grana., 2001, 40, 210-216.

47. Tosi E., Ciappini M., Re E., Lucero H., Honey thermal treatment effects on hydroxymethylfurfural content. Food Chem., 2002, 77, 71-74.

48. USDA: United States Standards for Grades of Extracted Honey., USDA. Washington DC Agricultural Marketing Service, 1985.

49. White J.W., Instrumental colour classification of honey: Collaborative study. J. AOAC, 1984, 67, 1129-1131.

50. Yatoo M.I., Devi S., Kumar P., Tiwari R., Sharma M.C., Soil plant- animal micro mineral status and their interrelation in Kashmir valley. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 2011, 81, 628-630.

51. Yilmaz H., Kufrevioglu I., Composition of honeys from eastern and southern Anatolia and effect of storage on hydroxymethylfurfural content and diastase activity. Turk. J. Agric. For., 2000, 25, 347-349.

Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences

The Journal of Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.760



CiteScore 2017: 1.95

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.651
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.113

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 103 103 12
PDF Downloads 43 43 6