Evaluation of Nutritive and Antioxidant Properties of Blanched Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

Open access


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata) that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min) caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05) at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%), proteins (0.36-12.03%), vitamin C (19.56-68.67%), carotenoids (18.91-55.48%) oxalates (3.58-21.39%) and phytates (10.51-68.02%). The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16%) of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05) of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g), magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g), potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g), iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g) and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g). All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Amic D. Davidovic-Amic D. Beslo D. Trinajstic N. Structureradical scavenging activity relationship of flavonoids. Croatic Chem. Acta 2003 76 55-61.

  • 2. An tia B.S. Akpan E.J. Okon P.A. Umoren I.U. Nutritive and anti-nutritive evaluation of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas) leaves. Pak. J. Nutr. 2006 5 2 166-168

  • 3. AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Ed. Washington DC 1990 p. 684.

  • 4. Canet W. Quality and stability of frozen vegetables. 1989 in: Developments in Food Preservation (ed. S. Thorne) vol. 5 New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Inc. p. 50.

  • 5. CEAEQ Détermination des métaux. Méthode par spectrométrie de masse à source ionisante au plasma d'argon. MA 200 - Met 1.2 Rev 4. Quebec 2013 p. 24.

  • 6. Chaturvedi V.C. Shrivastava R. Upreti R.K. Viral infections and trace elements: A complex trace element. Current Sci. 2004 87 1536-1554.

  • 7. Chima C.E. Igyor M.A. Micro-nutriments and anti-nutritional content of select tropical vegetables grown in south-east Nigeria. Nig. Food J. 2007 25 111-116.

  • 8. Choi C.W. Kim S.C. Hwang S.S. Choi B.K. Ahn H.J. Lee M.Z. Park S.H. Kim S.K. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity between Korean medicinal plant and flavonoids by assay guided comparison. Plant Sci. 2002 163 1161-1168.

  • 9. Chweya J.A. Identification and nutritional importance of indigenous green leafy vegetables in Kenya. Acta Hort. 1985 153 99-108.

  • 10. Day R.A. Underwood A.L. Quantitative Analysis. 1986 5th ed. Prentice Hall p. 701.

  • 11. Dewanto V. Wu X. Adom K.K. Liu R.H. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total anti- oxidant activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002 50 3010-3014.

  • 12. Ejoh A.R. Tchouanguep M.F. Fokou E. Nutrient composition of the leaves and flowers of Colocasia esculenta and the fruits of Solanum melongena. Plant Food Human Nutr. 1996 49 107-112.

  • 13. Ekop A.S. Eddy N.O. Comparative studies of the level of toxicants in the seed of Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) and African walnut (Coula edulis). Chem. Class J. 2005 2 74-76.

  • 14. FAO Food and Agriculture Organization. Food energy-methods of analysis and conversion factors. FAO Ed Rome 2002 p. 97.

  • 15. FAO Human vitamin and mineral requirements. FAO Ed 2004 p. 361.

  • 16. Fondio L. Kouamé C. N'zi J.C. Mahyao A. Agbo E. Djidji A.H. Survey of indigenous leafy vegetable in the urban and periurban areas of Côte d'Ivoire. Acta Hort. 2007 752 287-289.

  • 17. Gupta S. Lakshimi J.A. Prakash J. Effect of different blanching treatments on ascorbic acid retention in green leafy vegetables. Nat. Prod. Radiance 2008 7 111-116.

  • 18. Hassan L.G. Umar K.J. Umar Z. Anti-nutritive factors in Tribulus terrestris (Linn) leaves and predicted calcium and zinc bioavailability. J. Trop. Biosci. 2007 7 33–36.

  • 19. Ishida H. Suzuno H. Sugiyama N. Innami S. Todokoro T. Maekawa A. Nutritional evaluation of chemical component of leaves stalks and stems of sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas). Food Chem. 2000 68 359–367.

  • 20. Kays S.J. Dias J.S. Common names of commercially cultivated vegetables of the world in 15 languages. Econom Bot. 1995 49 115-52

  • 21. Latta M. Eskin M. A simple and rapid colorimetric method for phytate determination. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chem. 1980 28 1313–1315.

  • 22. Lund D.B. Effects of heat processing on nutrients. 1997 in: Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing (eds. R. Harries E. Karmas). The AVI Publishing Co. Inc Westport pp. 205–203.

  • 23. Lola A. The effect of boiling on the nutrients and anti-nutrients in two non-conventional vegetables. Pak. J. Nutr. 2009 8 1430–1433.

  • 24. Martorell M. Trowbridge F. Forging effective strategies to combatiron deficiency. J. Nutr. 2002 85 875-880.

  • 25. Mnzava N.A. Vegetable crop diversification and the place of traditional species in the tropics. In Proceedings of the IPGRI International workshop on genetic resources of traditional vegetables in Africa. 1997 (ed. L. Guarino). ICRAF-HQ Nairobi Kenya pp. 1-15.

  • 26. Murcia M.A. Lopez-Ayerra B. Garcia-Carmona F. Effect of processing methods and different blanching times on broccoli: proximate composition and fatty acids. LWT –Food Sci. Technol. 1999 32 238–243.

  • 27. Obel–Lawson E. The contribution of the awareness campaign of the African leafy vegetables project to nutrition behaviour change among the Kenyan urban population: The case of Nairobi. Biodiversity International 2005.

  • 28. Oboh G. Effect of blanching on the antioxidant properties of some tropical green leafy vegetables. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 2005 38 513–517.

  • 29. Oboh G. Rocha J.B. Polyphenols in red pepper and their protective effect on some pro-oxidants induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2007 225 239–247

  • 30. Oulai P. Z oué L. Mégnanou R.M. Doué R. Niamké S. Proximate composition and nutritive value of leafy vegetables consumed in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. Eur. Sci. J. 2014 10 212-227.

  • 31. Pongracz G. Weiser H. Matzinger D. Tocopherols –Antioxidants in nature. Fat Sci. Technol. 1971 97 90-104.

  • 32. PROTA Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale. 2004 Volume 2: Légumes. (eds. G.J.H. Grubben O.A. Denton). Fondation PROTA Backhuys Publishers CTA Wageningen. p. 737

  • 33. Prestamo G. Fuster C. Risueno M.C. Effects of blanching and freezing on the structure of carrots cells and their implications for food processing. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1998 77 223–229.

  • 34. Rice-Evans C. Miller N.J. Antioxidants: the case for fruit and vegetables in the diet. Brit. Food J. 1995 97 9 35–40

  • 35. Rodriguez–Amaya D.B. A guide to carotenoids analysis in foods. 2001 ILSI Press Washington DC p. 71.

  • 36. Sandberg A.S. Bioavailability of minerals in legumes. Brit. J. Nutr. 2002 88 Suppl. 3 281–285.

  • 37. Samsub W. Ratchanee K. Sungouag P. Charoensiri R. Effects of three conventional cooking methods on vitamin C tannin myoinositol phosphates contents in selected Thai vegetables. J. Food Comp. Anal. 2008 21 187–197.

  • 38. Singleton V.L. Orthofer R. Lamuela–Raventos R.M. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 1999 299 152–178.

  • 39. Smith I.F. Eyzaguirre P. African leafy vegetables: their role in the World Health Organization's global fruit and vegetable initiative. 2007

  • 40. Sobowale S.S. Olatidoye O.P. Olorode O.O. Akinlotan J.V. Nutritional potentials and chemical value of some tropical leafy vegetables consumed in south west Nigeria. J. Sci. Multidisciplinary Res. 2011 3 55–65.

  • 41. Soro L.C. Atchibri L.O. Kouadio K.K. Kouamé C. Evaluation de la composition nutritionnelle des legumes-feuilles. J. Appl. Biosci. 2012 51 3567–3573 (in French).

  • 42. Speek A.J. Temalilwa G.R. Schrijver J. Determination of ²–carotene content and vitamin A activity of vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. Food Chem. 1986 19 65–74.

  • 43. Svanberg S.M. Nyman E.M. Andersson L. Nilsson R. Effects of boiling and storage on dietary fiber and digestible carbohydrates in various cultivars of carrots. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1997 73 245–254.

  • 44. Takyi E.E. Children's consumption of dark green leafy vegetables with added fat enhances serum retinol. J. Nutr. 1999 129 1549-V1554

  • 45. Turan M. Kordali S. Zengin H. Dursun A. Sezen Y. Macro and micro-mineral content of some wild edible leaves consumed in Eastern Anatolia. Acta Agric. Scand. Plant Soil Sci. 2003 53 129–137.

  • 46. Umar K.J. Hassan L.G. Dangoggo S.M. Inuwa M. Amustapha M.N. Nutritional content of Melochia corchorifolia (Linn.) leaves. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2007 1 250-V255.

  • 47. Yamaguchi T. Mizobuchi T. Kajinawa H. Miyabe F. Terao J. Takamura H. Matoba T. Radical–scavenging activity of vegetables and the effect of cooking on their activity. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 2001 7 250–257

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.760

CiteScore 2018: 1.92

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.621
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.908

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 243 116 6
PDF Downloads 250 202 24