Rice Bran Oil and Pumpkin Seed Oil Alleviate Oxidative Injury and Fatty Liver in Rats Fed High Fructose Diet

Open access

Abstract

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are increasing in adults and are likely to be increasing in children. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the protective effect of rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil against high fructose diet (HFD) inducing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The results showed significant elevation of plasma total and direct bilirubin, transaminases activities, total cholesterol (T-Ch), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Ch), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant increase in liver TG, T-Ch and MDA along with significant reduction in plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch) and increase in T-Ch/HDL-Ch in rats fed HFD compared to rats fed on balanced diet. Histopathology of liver of rats fed on HFD confirmed the induction of NASH. Rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil produced improvement in the biochemical parameters with different degrees. Pumpkin seed oil reversed all histopathological changes that occur in liver tissue which became comparable to normal in some rats. In conclusion, rats fed high fructose diet are a good model for studying NASH. Rice bran oil and pumpkin seed oil afford hepato protection against NASH in rat model.

References

  • 1. Abid A., Taha O., Nseir W., Farah R., Grosovski M., Assy N., Soft drink consumption is associated with fatty liver disease independent of metabolic syndrome. J. Hepatol., 2009, 51, 918-924.

  • 2. Ackerman Z., Oron-Herman M., Grozovski M., Rosenthal T., Poppo O., Link G., Sela B.-A., Fructose-induced fatty liver disease: hepatic effects of blood pressure and plasma triglyceride reduction. Hypertension, 2005, 45, 1012-1018.

  • 3. Akihisa T., Yasukawa K., Yamaura M., Ukiya M., Kimura Y., Shimizu N., Arai K., Triterpene alcohol and sterol ferulates from rice bran and their anti-infl ammatory effects. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, 2313-2319.

  • 4. Al-Okbi SY., Mohamed DA. , Hamed TE., Edris AE., Potential protective effect of Nigella sativa crude oils towards fatty liver in rats. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 2013, 115, 774-782.

  • 5. Al-Okbi S.Y., Mohamed D.A., Kandil E., Ahmed E.K., Mohammed S.E., Functional ingredients and cardiovascular protective effect of pumpkin seed oils. Grasas y Aceites, 2014, 65, (1), e007. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/gya.062813 (in press).

  • 6. Angulo P., Lindor K.D., Non alcoholic fatty liver disease. J. Gastroent. Hepatol., 2002, S186-S190.

  • 7. Aragno M., Tomasinelli C.E., Vercellinatto I., Catalano M.G., Collino M., Fantozzi R., Danni O., Boccuzzi G., SREBP-1c in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by Western-type highfat diet plus fructose in rats. Free Radical Biol. Med., 2009, 47, 1067-1074.

  • 8. Ardiansyah S.H., Koseki T., Ohinata K., Hazhizume K., Komai M., Rice bran fractions improve blood pressure, lipid profi le, and glucose metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54, 1914-1920.

  • 9. Assy N., Kaita K., Mymin D., Levy C., Rosser B., Minuk G., Fatty infi ltration of liver in hyperlipidemic patients. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2000, 45, 1929-1934.

  • 10. Assy N., Nasser G., Kamayse I., Nseir W., Beniashvili Z., Djibre A., Soft drink consumption linked with fatty liver in the absence of traditional risk factors. Can. J. Gastroenterol., 2008, 22, 811-816.

  • 11. Barakat L.A., Mahmoud R.H., The antiatherogenic, renal protective and immunomodulatory effects of purslane, pumpkin and flax seeds on hypercholesterolemic rats. N. Am. J. Med. Sci., 2011, 3, 411-417.

  • 12. Barbuio R., Milanski M., Bertolo M.B., Saad M.J., Vellosa L.A., Infl iximab reverses steatosis and improves insulin signal transduction in liver of rats fed a high-fat diet. J. Endocrinol., 2007, 194, 539-550.

  • 13. Basciano H., Federico L., Adeli K., Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutr. Metab. (Lond.), 2005, 2, 5-19.

  • 14. Bray G.A., Fructose and risk of cardiometabolic disease. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep., 2012, 14, 570-578. doi: 10.1007/s11883-012- -0276-6.

  • 15. Brunt E.M., Janney C.G., Di Bisceglie A.M., Neuschwander-Tetri B.A., Bacon B.R., Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a proposal for grading and staging the histological lesions. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 1999, 94, 2467-2474.

  • 16. Burstein M., Scholnick H.R., Morfi n R., Rapid method for the isolation of lipoproteins from human serum by precipitation with polyanions. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 1970, 11, 583-595.

  • 17. Chen C., Cheng H., A rice bran oil diet increases LDL-receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expressions and insulin sensitivity in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes. J. Nutr., 2006, 136, 1472-1476.

  • 18. Chopra R., Sambaiah K., Effects of rice bran oil enriched with n-3 PUFA on liver and serum lipids in rats. Lipids, 2009, 44, 37-46.

  • 19. Day CP., Saksena S., Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: defi nitions and pathogenesis. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2002, 17, S3, S377-S384.

  • 20. Ekor M., Emerole G.O., Farombi E.O., Phenolic extract of soybean (Glycine max) attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2010, 48, 1005-1012.21. Fang F., Kang Z., Wong C., Vitamin E tocotrienols improve insulin sensitivity through activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 2010, 54, 345-352.

  • 22. Feoli A., Roehrig C., Rotta L., Serum and liver lipids in rats and chicks fed with diets containing different oils. Nutrition, 2003, 19, 789-793.

  • 23. Folch J., Lees M., Stanley G.H.S., A simple method for the isolation and purifi cation of total lipides from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 1957, 226, 497-509.

  • 24. Ha V., Jayalath V.H., Cozma A.I., Mirrahimi A., de Souza R.J., Sievenpiper J.L., Fructose-containing sugars, blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk: A critical review. Curr. Hypertens. Rep., 2013, 15, 281-297.

  • 25. Howard B.V., Davis M.P., Pettitt D.J., Knowler W.C., Bennett P.H., Plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the Pima Indians: distributions differing from those of Caucasians. Circulation. 1983, 68, 714-724.

  • 26. Jaya C., Anuradha C.V., Cissus quadrangularis stem alleviates insulin resistance, oxidative injury and fatty liver disease in rats fed high fat plus fructose diet. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2010, 48, 2021-2029.

  • 27. Kawasaki T., Igarashi K., Koeda T., Sugimoto K., Nakagawa K., Hayashi S., Yamaji R., Inui H., Fukusato T., Yamanouchi T., Rats fed fructose-enriched diets have characteristics of nonalcoholic hepatic Steatosis. J. Nutr., 2009, 139, 2067- 2071.

  • 28. Khatoon S., Gopalakrishna A.G., Fat-soluble nutraceuticals and fatty acid composition of selected Indian rice varieties. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2004, 81, 939-943.

  • 29. Koteish A., Diehl A.M., Animal models of steatosis. Semin. Liver Dis., 2001, 21, 89-104.

  • 30. Lloyd B.J., Siebenmorgen T.J., Beers K.W., Effects of commercial processing on antioxidants in rice bran. Cereal Chem., 2000, 77, 551-555.

  • 31. Makni M., Fetoui H., Gargouri N.K., Garoui E.M., Jaber H., Makni J., Boudawara T., Zeghal N., Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of flax and pumpkin seed mixture rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in hypercholesterolemic rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2008, 46, 3714-3720.

  • 32. Makni M., Sefi M., Fetoui H., Garoui E., Gargouri K.N., Boudawara T., Zeghal N., Flax and pumpkin seeds mixture ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2010, 48, 2407-2412.

  • 33. McCullough A.J., The clinical features, diagnosis and nature history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin. Liver Dis., 2004, 8, 521-533.

  • 34. Megraw R., Dunn D., Biggs H., Manual and continuous fl ow colorimetry of triglycerols by a fully enzymatic method. Clin. Chem., 1979, 25, 273-284.

  • 35. Nagasaka R., Chotimarkorn C., Islam Md. Shafi qul, Hori M., Ozaki H., Ushio H., Anti-infl ammatory effects of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2007, 358, 615-619.

  • 36. Neuschwander-Tetri B.A., Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and the metabolic syndrome. Am. J. Med. Sci., 2005, 330, 326-335.

  • 37. Nomura K., Yamanouchi T., The role of fructose-enriched diets in mechanisms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J. Nutr. Biochem., 2012, 23, 203-208.

  • 38. Ohara K., Uchida A., Nagasaka R., Ushio H., Ohshima T., The effects of hydroxycinnnamic acid derivatives on adiponectin secretion. Phytomedicine, 2009, 16, 130-137.

  • 39. Ohkawa H., Ohishi N., Yagi K., Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem., 1979, 95, 351-358.

  • 40. Raval J., Lyman S., Nitta T., Mohuczy D., Lemasters J.J., Kim J.S., Basal reactive oxygen species determine the susceptibility to apoptosis in cirrhotic hepatocytes. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 2006, 41, 1645-1654.

  • 41. Reitman S., Frankel S., Colorimetric methods for aspartate and alanine aminotransferase. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 1957, 28, 55-60.

  • 42. Rippe J.M., Angelopoulos T.J., Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know? Adv. Nutr., 2013, 4, 236-245.

  • 43. Satoh K., Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clin. Chim. Acta, 1978, 20, 37-43.

  • 44. Saunders R.M., Rice bran: composition and potential food uses. Food Rev. Int., 1985, 13, 465-495.

  • 45. Schriewer H., Kohnert U., Assmann G., Determination of LDL cholesterol and LDL apolipoprotein B following precipitation of VLDL in blood serum with phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem., 1984, 22, 35-40.

  • 46. Stepaniak J.A., Gould K.E., Sun D., Swanborg R.H., A comparative study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis and DA rats. J. Immunol., 1995,155, 2762-2769.

  • 47. Stevenson D., Eller F., Wang L., Jane J., Wang T., Inglett G., Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 4005-4013.

  • 48. Suresh Y., Das UN., Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and chemically induced diabetes mellitus: Effect of ω-6 fatty acids. Nutrition, 2003, 19, 93−114.

  • 49. Tappy L., Le KA., Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiol. Rev., 2010, 90, 23-46.

  • 50. Vijaimohan K., Jainu M., Sabitha K., Subramanifam S., Anandhan C., Devi C., Benefi cial effects of alpha linolenic acid rich flaxseed oil on growth performance and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed rats. Life Sci., 2006, 79, 448-454.

  • 51. Vos MB., Lavine JE., Dietary fructose in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology, 2013, 57, 2525-2531.

  • 52. Watson D., A simple method for the determination of serum cholesterol. Clin. Chim. Acta., 1960, 5, 637-642.

  • 53. Wilson T.A., Nicolosi R.J., Woolfrey B., Kritchevsky D., Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J. Nutr. Biochem., 2007, 18, 105-112.

  • 54. Xu Z., Hua N., Godber J.S., Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and gamma-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2’-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49, 2077-2081.

Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences

The Journal of Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.276

CiteScore 2016: 1.56

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.397
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.951

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 15 15 15
PDF Downloads 4 4 4