Characteristics of Biologically-Active Substances of Amaranth Oil Obtained by Various Techniques

Open access

Amaranth seeds and their main product amaranth oil are a rich source of bioactive substances. The non-saponifi able substances which accompany lipids include: squalene, tocopherols, sterols and others. The aim of the study was to compare the content of squalene, tocopherols and phytosterols in amaranth oils obtained by various techniques. The oil was extracted from seeds (Amaranthus cruentus) with the use of supercritical fl uid extraction (SFE), extraction with a chloroform/methanol mixture and expeller pressing. Contents of squalene and tocopherols were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The content of sterols in oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

The highest squalene content was found for the oil obtained as a result of supercritical CO2 extraction (6.95 g/100 g of oil). A lower content of squalene was noted in the oil extracted with organic solvents and in cold-pressed oil - 6.00 and 5.74 g/100 g of oil, respectively. The amaranth oils were characterised by a signifi cant content of tocopherols. The oil obtained as a result of fl uid extraction was characterised by the highest content of tocopherols (131.7 mg/100 g of oil). A dominating homologue (40%) was β-tocopherol. Also the same sample was characterised by the highest content of sterols (2.49 g/100 g of oil). In all samples the predominating sterol was sum of α-spinasterol and sitosterol, which accounted for 45%, 56% and 53% of total analysed sterols for the oil obtained from SFE, from extraction with solvents and from cold pressing, respectively.

1. Barba de la Rosa A.P., Fomsgaard I.S., Laursen B, Mortensen A.G., Olvera-Marínez L., Silva-Sánchez C., Mendoza-Herrera A., Gonzalez-Castaneda J., De Leon-Rodriguez A., Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as an alternative crop for sustainable food production: Phenolic acids and fl avonoids with potential impact on its nutraceutical quality. J. Cereal Sci., 2009, 49, 117-121.

2. Bakes M.J., Nichols P.D., Lipid, fatty acid and squalene composition of liver oil from six species of deep-sea sharks collected in southern Australian waters. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1995, 110, 267-275.

3. Bartnikowska E., Biological activities of phytosterols with particular attention to their effects on lipid metabolism. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2009, 59, 105-112.

4. Berganza B.E., Moran A.W, Rodríguez G.M., Coto N.M., Santamaría M., Bressani R., Effect of variety and location on the total fat, fatty acids and squalene content of amaranth. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 2003, 58, 1-6.

5. Berger A., Monnard I., Dionisi F., Gumy D., Hayes K.C., Lambelet P., Cholesterol-lowering properties of amaranth fl akes, crude and refi ned oils in hamsters. Food Chem., 2003, 81, 119-124.

6. Black M., Bewley J.D., Halmer P., The Encyclopedia of Seeds, Science, Technology and Use. 2006, CABI, p. 336.

7. Bodroža-Solarov M., Filipčev B., Kevrešan Ž., Mandić A., Šimurina O., Quality of bread supplemented with popped Amaranthus cruentus grain. J. Food Proc. Eng., 2007, 31, 602-618.

8. Bruni R., Guerrini A., Scalia S., Romagnoli C., Sacchetti G., Rapid Techniques for the Extraction of Vitamin E Isomers from Amaranthus caudatus Seeds: Ultrasonic and Supercritical Fluid Extraction. Phytochem. Anal., 2002, 13, 257-261.

9. Ceglińska A., Cacak-Pietrzak A., Mity a Nauka. Magiczne właściwości dzikich zbóż św. Hildegardy. Orkisz, szarłat, komosa ryżowa, 1999, Wrocławskie Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 93-142.

10. Czaplicki S., Ogrodowska D., Derewiaka D., Tańska M., Zadernowski R., Bioactive compounds in unsaponifi able fraction of oils from unconventional sources. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 2011, 113, 1456-1464.

11. Czaplicki S., Zadernowski R., Ogrodowska D. Triacylglycerols from viper bugloss (Echium vulgare L.) seeds bio-oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol, 2009, 111, 1266-1269.

12. EFSA Report, Consumption of food and beverages with added plant sterols in the European Union. The EFSA Journal, 2008, 133, 1-21.

13. Folch J., Lees M., Stanley S.G.H., A simple method for the isolation and purifi cation of total lipides from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 1957, 226, 497-509.

14. Gamel T.H., Mesallam A.S., Damir A.A., Shekib L.A., Linssen J.P., Characterization of amaranth seed oils. J. Food Lipids, 2007, 14, 323-334.

15. Gontarczyk M., Szarłat uprawny - Amaranthus ssp. Nowe rośliny uprawne na cele spożywcze, przemysłowe i jako odnawialne źródła energii. 1996, Wyd. SGGW, Warszawa, 21-43.

16. Gorinstein S., Medina Vergas O.J., Jaramillo N.O., Salas I.A., Martinez Ayala A.L., Arancibia-Avila P., Toledo F., Katrich E., Trakhtenberg S., The total polyphenols and the antioxidant potentials of some selected cereals and pseudocereals. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2007, 225, 321-328.

17. Grajeta H., Nutritive value and utilization of amaranth. Bromat. Chem. Toksykol. 1997, 30, 17-23 (in Polish).

18. Gromadzka J., Wardencki W., Trends in edible vegetable oils analysis. Part A. Determination of different components of edible oils - a review. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2011, 61, 33-43.

19. Gromadzka J., Wardencki W., Trends in edible vegetable oils analysis. Part B. Application of different analytical techniques. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2011, 61, 89-99.

20. Gunstone F., Production and trade of vegetable oil. 2002, in: Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and Uses. Blackwell Publishing, pp. 1-4.

21. Janiszewska E., Witrowa-Rejchert D., Supercritical extraction in food industry. Żywność. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość, 2005, 4, 5-16 (in Polish).

22. Januszewska-Jóźwiak K., Synowiecki J., Characteristics and suitability of amaranth components in food biotechnology. Biotechnology, 2008, 3, 89-102.

23. Kelly G.S., Squalene and its potential clinical uses. Altern. Med. Rev., 1999, 4, 29-36.

24. León-Camacho M., Garcia-González D.L., Aparicio R., A detailed and comprehensive study of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) oil fatty profi le. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2001, 213, 349-355.

25. Lippi G., Targher G., Franchini M., Vaccination, squalene and anti-squalene antibodies: Facts or fi ction?, Eur. J. Intern. Med., 2010, 21, 70-73.

26. Marcone M.F., Kakadu Y., Yada R.Y., Amaranth as a rich dietary source of β-sitosterol and other phytosterols. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 2004, 58, 207-211.

27. Martinez-Correa H.A., Gomes D.C.A., Kanehisa S.L., Cabral F.A., Measurements and thermodynamic modeling of the solubility of squalene in supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Food Eng., 2010, 96, 43-50.

28. Martirosyan D.M., Miroshnichenko L.A., Kulakova S.N., Pogojeva A.V., Zoloedov V.I., Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension. Lipids Health Dis., 2007, 6, 1-12.

29. Pereira C.G., Meirel es M.A.A., Supercritical fl uid extraction of bioactive compounds: Fundamentals, applications and economic perspectives. Food Bioprocess Technol., 2010, 3, 340-372.

30. Peterson D.M., Qureshi A.A., Genotype and environment effects on tocols of barley and oats. Cereal Chem., 1993, 70, 157-162.

31. Piotrowska A., Żebrowska M., Waszkiewicz-Robak B., Małecka K., Sensory quality of yoghurts enriched with squalene from amaranthus oil. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 2007, 57(4B), 437-444.

32. Reichert R.D., Oilseed medicinals: In natural drugs, dietary supplements and in new functional foods. Trends Food Sci. Tech., 2002, 13, 353-360.

33. Sindhuja A., Sudha M.L., Rahim A., Effect of incorporation of amaranth fl our on the quality of cookies. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 2005, 221, 597-601.

34. Sun H., Wiesenborn D., Rayas-Duarte P., Mohamed A., Hagen K., Bench-scale processing of amaranth seed for oil. JAOCS, 1995, 72, 1551-1555.

35. Sun H., Wiesenborn D., Tostenson K., Gillespie J., Rayas- -Duarte P., Fractionation of squalene from amaranth seed oil. JAOCS, 1997, 74, 413-418.

36. Takatsuto S., Kosuga N., Abe B., Noguchi T., Occurrence of potential brassinosteroid precursor steroids in seeds of wheat and foxtail millet. J. Plant Res., 1999, 112, 27-33.

37. Temelli F., Perspectives on supercritical fl uid processing of fats and oils. J. Supercritical Fluids, 2009, 47, 583-590.

38. Vlahakis C., Hazebroek J., Phytosterol accumulation in canola, sunfl ower, and soybean oils: effects of genetics, planting location, and temperature. JAOCS., 2000, 77, 49-53.

39. Wang L., Weller C.L., Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from plants. Trends Food Sci. Tech., 2006, 17, 300-312.

40. Westerman D., Santos R.C.D., Bosley J.A., Rogers J.S., Al- Duri B., Extraction of Amaranth seed oil by supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Supercritical Fluids, 2006, 37, 38-52.

Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences

The Journal of Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.697
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.760

CiteScore 2017: 1.95

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.651
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.113

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 214 214 16
PDF Downloads 87 87 6