Fatty Acid Composition of Butter Originated from North-Eastern Region of Poland
The study investigated the fatty acid composition (fatty acids, FA) of 19 samples of butter originating from the north-eastern region of Poland throughout the year. The annual variability was observed in the FA composition of butter. A higher content of short and medium chain saturated FA (SCFA) was determined in the samples from the winter season (12.6-13.4%) and lower one in the summer samples (11.2-12.1%). The major FA of the saturated long chain acids (LCFA) of butter were: palmitic C16:0: (25.7-34.6%) and myristic C14:0: (9.7-11.9%), their higher contents were found in the samples from the winter and early-spring production. Butters produced in the summer period were characterised by a higher content of oleic acid C18:1 9c (20.6-23.1%) belonging to monounsaturated FA (MUFA) as compared to the samples produced in the winter and spring (18.3-21.4%). Contents of FA belonging to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were: 1.0-1.5% for linoleic C18:2 9c 12c (LA) and linolenic acids C18:3 9c 12c 15c (ALA), which were subjected to seasonal variation in the range of 0.1-1.0%. The content of predominant trans isomer in ruminant fats, i.e. vaccenic acid C18: 1 11t (VA), resulting from "biohydrogentaion" of the PUFA (LA and ALA) in the rumen, has been strictly connected with the season of production: a higher content of VA was determined in butter samples from the summer and autumn (1.9-3.8%) and lower one in the samples produced in the winter and spring (0.8-1.3%). Similarly, seasonal variation was also observed in the content of conjugated linoleic acid C18: 2 9c11t (CLA). Its significant content - 580 mg CLA /100g of product on average - was determined in butter samples produced in the summer and autumn season in the north-eastern region of Poland.
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