Influence of Chemically-Modified Potato Starch (RS Type 4) on the Nutritional and Physiological Indices of Rats
A biological study was undertaken to analyse the metabolic effect of feeding rats with an experimental diet in which cellulose was substituted with 20% contribution of chemically-modified potato starches (subjected to oxidation, esterification, cross-linking and dual modification). Caecum digesta mass was significantly higher in rats fed the experimental potato starch preparations compared to control group. Luminal ammonia concentration and pH of caecal or colonic content were lower as an effect of diets with all the investigated preparations. Compared to the cellulose-containing diet (control), all modified potato starch preparations raised the content of SCFA in caecum digesta when fed to rats. Significant lowering of the levels of triacylglycerols and total cholesterol was noticed for all chemically-modified starch preparations. The activity of β-glucuronidase determined upon the administration of potato starch preparations into rat diets was significantly lower as compared to the control diet. The results indicate that the chemically-modified potato starch preparations are a good substrate for the intestinal microecosystem and may promote the beneficial status of the gastrointestinal tract of rats.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Annison G. Illman R. J. Topping D. L. Acetylated propionylated or butyrylated starches raise large bowel short-chain fatty acids preferentially when fed to rats. J. Nutr. 2003 133 3523-3528.
AOAC Official Methods of Analysis. (15th ed.). 1990 Arlington Virginia USA.
Bird A. R. Brown I. L. Topping D. L. Low and high amylase maize starches acetylated by a commercial or a laboratory process both deliver acetate to the large bowel of rats. Food Hydrocoll. 2006 20 1135-1140.
Cermak R. Minck K. Lawnitzak C. Scharrer E. Ammonia inhibits sodium and chloride absorption in rat distal colon. Exp. Physiol. 2002 87 311-319.
Champ M. Martin L. Noah L. Gratas M. Analytical methods for resistant starch. 1999 in: Complex Carbohydrates in Foods (eds. S. Sungsoo Cho L. Prosky M. Dreher). Marcel Dekker Inc. New York pp. 184-187.
Clarke J. M. Bird A. R. Topping D. L. Cobiac L. Excretion of starch and esterified short-chain fatty acids by ileostomy subjects after the ingestion of acetylated starches. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007 86 1146-1151.
Close B. Banister K. Baumans V. Bernoth E.-M. Bromage N. Bunyan J. Erhardt W. Flecknell P. Gregory N. Hackbarth H. Morton D. Warwick C. Recommendation for euthanasis of experimental animals: Part 2. Lab. Animals 1997 31 1-32.
Cummings J. H. Macfarlane G. T. The control and consequences of bacterial fermentation in the human colon-a review. J. Appl. Bact. 1991 70 443-459.
De Deckere E. A. M. Kloots W. J. van Amelsvoort J. M. M. Resistant starch decreases serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats. J. Nutr. 1993 123 2142-2151.
Djouzi Z. Andrieux C. Compared effect of the three oligosaccharides on metabolism of intestinal microflora in rats with a human faecal flora. Brit. J. Nutr. 1997 78 313-324.
Ebihara K. Shiraishi R. Okuma K. Hydroxypropyl-modified potato starch increases fecal bile acid excretion in rats. J. Nutr. 1998 128 848-854.
Ferguson M. J. Jones G. P. Production of short-chain fatty acids following in vitro fermentation of saccharides saccharide esters fructo-oligosaccharides starches modified starches and nonstarch polysaccharides. J. Sci. Food Agr. 2000 80 166-170.
FAO/WHO 1998 Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation 14-18 April 1997 97-104.
Gallant D. J. Bouchet B. Buléon A. Pérez S. Physical characteristics of starch granules and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992 46 suppl. 2 3-16.
Hodgkinson A. Davis D. Fourman J. Robertson W. G. Roe F. J. C. A comparison of the effects of lactose and of two chemically modified waxy maize starches on mineral metabolism in the rat. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1982 20 371-382.
Hofirek B. Haas D. Comparative studies of ruminal fluid collected by stomach tube or by puncture of the caudoventral ruminal sac. Acta Vet. Brno 2001 70 27-33.
Juśkiewicz J. Zduńczyk Z. Effects of cellulose carboxymethylcellulose and inulin fed to rats as single supplements or in combinations on their caecal parameters. Comp. Biochem. Phys. A 2004 139 513-519.
Kishida T. Nakai Y. Ebihara K. Hydroxypropyl-distarch phophate from tapioca starch reduces zinc and iron absorption but not calcium and magnesium absorption in rats. J. Nutr. 2001 131 294-300.
Kishida T. Nogami H. Ogawa H. Ebihara K. The hypocholesterolemic effect of high amylose cornstarch in rats is mediated by an enlarged bile acid pool and increased faecal bile acid excretion not by caecal fermented products. J. Nutr. 2002 132 2519-2524.
Krupa-Kozak U. Juśkiewicz J. Wronkowska M. Soral-Śmietana M. Zduńczyk Z. Native and microwaved bean and pea starch preparations-physiological effects on the intestinal ecosystem caecal tissue and serum lipids in rats. Brit. J. Nutr. 2010 103 1118-1126.
Lehmann U. Robin F. Slowly digestible starch-its structure and health implications: a review. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 2007 18 346-355.
Lopez H. W. Levrat-Verny M.-A. Coudray C. Besson C. Krespine V. Messager A. Demigné C. Rémésy C. Class 2 resistant starches lower plasma and liver lipids and improve mineral retention in rats. J. Nutr. 2001 131 1283-1289.
Mallet A. K. Rowland I. R. Factors affecting the gut microflora. 1988 in: Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer. Academic Press London 347-382
Nugent A. P. Health properties of resistant starch. Brit. Nutr. Found. Bull. 2005 30 27-54.
Pastuszewska B. Kowalczyk J. Ochtabińska A. Dietary carbohydrates affect caecal fermentation and modify nitrogen excretion patterns in rats. II. Studies with diets differing in protein quality. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 2000 53 335-352.
Raben A. Andersen K. Karberg M. A. Holst J. J. Astrup A. Acetylation of or beta-cyclodextrin addition to potato: beneficial effect on glucose metabolism and appetite sensations. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997 66 304-314.
Ranghotra G. S. Gelroth J. A. Leinen B. S. Hypolipidemic effects of resistant starch in hamster is not dose dependent. Nutr. Res. 1997 17 317-323.
Reddy B. S. Engle A. Simi B. Goldman M. Effect of dietary fiber on colonic bacterial enzymes and bile acids in relation to colon cancer. Gastroenterology 1992 102 1475-1482.
Reeves P. G. Components of the AIN-93 diets as improvements in the AIN-76A diet. J. Nutr. 1997 127 838-841.
Rowland I. Tanaka R. The effects of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides on gut flora metabolism in rats associated with a human fecal microflora. J. Appl. Bacter. 1993 74 667-674.
Sacquet E. Leprince C. Riottot M. Effect of amylomaize starch on cholesterol and bile acid metabolisms in germfree (axenic) and conventional (holoxenic) rats. Repr. Nutr. Devel. 1983 23 783-792.
Silvester K. R. Englyst H. N. Cummings J. H. Ileal recovery of starch from whole diets containing resistant starch measured in vitro and fermentation of ileal effluent. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995 62 403-411.
Silvi S. Rumney C. J. Cresci A. Rowland I. R. Resistant starch modifies gut microflora and microbial metabolism in human flora-associated rats inoculated with faeces from Italian and UK donors. J. Appl. Microbiol. 1999 86 521-530.
Soral-Śmietana M. Wronkowska M. Resistant starch of pea origin. Żywność. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość 2000 23 204-212.
Til H. P. Feron V. J. Immel H. R. Vogel W. F. Chronic (89-week) feeding study with hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate starch acetate lactose and sodium alginate in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1986 24 825-834.
Topping D. L. Clifton P. M. Short chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and non-starch polysaccharides. Phys. Rev. 2001 81 1031-1064.
Wolf B. W. Bauer L. L. Fahey G. C. Effects of chemical modification on in vitro rate and extent of food starch digestion: an attempt to discover a slowly digested starch. J. Agr. Food Chem. 1999 47 4178-4183.
Wolf B. W. Woelver T. M. S. Bolognesi C. Zinker B. A. Garleb K. A. Firkins J. F. Glycemic response to a food starch estrified by 1-octenyl succinic anhydride in humans. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2001 49 2674-2678.
Woo K. S. Seib P. A. Cross-linked resistant starch: preparation and properties. Cereal Chem. 2002 79 819-825.
Wronkowska M. Juśkiewicz J. Soral-Śmietana M. Nutritional and physiological effects of native and physically-modified starches of different origin on rats. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2002 11/52 SI 1 62-67.
Wronkowska M. Soral-Śmietana M. Krupa U. Chapter 9: In vitro hydrolysed chemically modified potato starch-binding of cholesterol and bile acids. 2008 in: Starch: Recent Progress in Biopolymer and Enzyme Technology (eds. P. Tomasik E. Bertoft A. Blennow). Polish Society of Food Technologists. Cracow pp. 123-130.
Wurzburg O. B. Nutritional aspects and safety of modified food starches. Nutr. Rev. 1986 44 74-79.
Younes H. Demigne C. Behr S. Remesy C. Resistant starch exerts a lowering effect on plasma urea by enhancing urea N transfer into the large intestine. Nutr. Res. 1995 15 1199-1210.