Circadian variation in metabolite and enzyme activities in the femoral and thoracic muscles of adult variegated grasshoppers, Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

Open access


The African variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus, exhibits daily variations in its feeding and destructive activities. A study to investigate circadian variation in metabolites (lipids, protein, glucose, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl) concentrations and enzymes (lipase, amylase, proteinase, α-glucosidase) activities in the femoral and thoracic muscles of adult Z. variegatus was carried out by collecting samples at 06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 hrs GMT. The four enzymes were present throughout the day in both thoracic and femoral muscles but at varying levels. Significantly (p<0.05) higher enzymes activities were measured during the day (between 06:00 and 18:00 hours GMT) (except proteinase) than at night (24:00 hrs). Organic substances in the two tissues were present in significantly higher concentrations during the day than at night. Similarly, significantly more inorganic substances were recorded in the afternoon (12:00-18:00 hrs) than at night in both femoral and thoracic muscles. It can thus be concluded that locomotor activities in Z. variegatus reach a peak during the day.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adedire C.O. 1994. Distribution of carbohydrases and protease in the intestine of the Kola nut weevil Sophrorhinus insperatus Faust (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and response of protease to inhibitor from Kola nuts. Applied Entomology and Zoology 29(3): 331–338.

  • Adedire C.O. Balogun R.A. 1995. Digestive enzymes and regional localization of proteolytic endopeptidase in alimentary canal of Kola nut weevil Sophrorhinus insperatus Faust (Curculionidea). Entomon 20(3): 183–189.

  • Ademolu K.O. Idowu A.B. Amusan A.A.S. 2007. Chemical analysis of tissues of Zonocerus variegatus (L) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) during post-embryonic development in Abeokuta South-western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Entomology 24: 27–34.

  • Ademolu K.O. Idowu A.B. Olatunde G.O. 2009. Morphometrics and enzymes activities in the femoral muscles of variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) during post embryonic development. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 29(1): 53–56.

  • Ademolu K.O. Idowu A.B. Oke O.A 2013a. Life cycle and morphometric studies of variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus 1758). Munis Entomology and Zoology 8(1): 375–381.

  • Ademolu K.O. Idowu A.B. Onabiyi O. Oke O.A. 2013b. The roles of food plants on the dispersion activities of variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae). African Entomology 21(1): 41–44.

  • Baumniger R.M. 1974. Analytical Biochemistry. Oxford Press London.

  • Chapman R.F. Cook A.G. Mitchel G.M. Page W.W. 1977. Description and morphometrics of the nymphs of Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera; Pyrgomorphidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 67(3): 422–437.

  • Chiffaud J. Mestre J. 1990. Le criquet puant Zonocerus variegatus (Linne 1758): essai de synthese bibliographique. CIRAD-PRIFAS Montpellier.

  • Darvishzadeh A. Bandani A.R. 2012. Identification and characterization of alpha-amylase in the Italian Locust Calliptamus italicus (Linnaeus1758) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Munis Entomology and Zoology 7(2): 1028–1034.

  • Grant G.H 1987. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. WB Saunders Company Philadelphia.

  • Henry R.J. Canon D.C. Winkelman J.W 1974. Clinical Chemistry: Principles and Techniques. 2nd ed. Harper and Row Publishers New York.

  • Hill L. Goldsworthy G.T. 1968. Growth feeding activity and the utilization of reserves in larvae of Locusta. Journal of Insect Physiology 14(8): 1085–1098.

  • Kaufman T. 1965. Observations on aggregation migration and feeding habits of Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Ghana. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 58(4): 426–436.

  • Modder W.W.D. 1981. The glycosidases in the midgut and thoracic muscle of Valanga irregularis (Walker) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Acrida 10(2): 33–49.

  • Modder W.W.D. 1984. Diurnal variation in the feeding and growth activity in nymphs of the African pest grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (L.). Insect Science and Application 5(6): 527–531.

  • Oladiran O.T. 1991. Aspects of the morphometrics of late instar and adult Zonocerus variegatus (L.) and the colorimetric absorbance due to protein content of their hind femur muscles. B.Sc. Project Report University of Ibadan Ibadan Nigeria.

  • Toye S.A. 1974. Feeding and locomotory activities of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera Acridoidea). Revue de Zoologie Africaine 88: 205–212.

  • Toye S.A. 1982. Studies on the biology of the grasshopper pest Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera: yrgomorphidae) in Nigeria: 1911-1981. International Journal of Tropical Science 3(1): 1–7.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.44

Scimago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.218
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.167

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 225 98 7
PDF Downloads 126 54 0