Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab). Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February) and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota) from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab), only a few flies were caught.
Ahmad M., Mofleh M., Ajjan I. 2001. The relationships between Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its host plants in the coastal area of Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection 19(1): 27–34.
Avidov Z., Harpaz I. 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Israel University Press, Jerusalem.
Bodenheimer F.S. 1930. Die Schädlingsfauna Palästinas unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Grossschädlinge des Mittelmeergebietes. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin.
Bodenheimer F.S. 1951. The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). [in:] F.S. Bodenheimer (ed.). Citrus Entomology in the Middle East with special references to Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, Turkey. Dr W. Junk, The Hague, 87–160.
Bodenheimer F.S. 1963. Ceratitis capitata in the Mediterranean basin. [in:] A. Grunberg (ed.). Report of the international conference on the Mediterranean fruit fly and San Jose scale. EPPO, Paris.
Buyckx E.J. 1994. Chapter 12. Bioclimatic effects on the distribution of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Maghreb. [in:] C.O. Calkins, W. Klassen, P. Liedo (eds.). Fruit flies and the sterile insect technique. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 149–164.
Campos M., Ramos P., O.T. Jones 1989. Monitoring population of Ceratitis capitata in the Granada province of Spain using three different trapping systems. [in:] R. Cavalloro (ed.). Proceedings, Symposium: Fruit Flies of Economic Importance 87. Commission of the European Communities International Organization for Biological Control, International Symposium, 7-10 April 1987, Rome, Italy. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 401–404.
Dhouibi M.H., Gahbich H. 1994. Fluctuations des populations naturelles de la mouche méditerranéenne des fruits Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera Trypetidae) dans deux biotopes du Nord de la Tunisie et évolution de l'infestation des Citrus. [in:] J. Piedade-Guerrreiro (ed.). Fruit flies of economic importance. IOBG/WPRS Bulletin 17(6): 41–59.
Fimiani P. 1989. Mediterranean region. [in:] A.S. Robinson, G. Hooper (eds.). Fruit flies: their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. 3A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 39–50.
Grunberg A. 1938. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) in the Jordan Valley. Bulletin of Entomological Research 29(1): 63–76.
Harris E.J. 1975. Biotic factors influencing trends of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in selected host habitats in Tunisia. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Hawaii, Mona.
Harris E.J. 1993. Relationship between host plant fruiting phenology and Ceratitis capitata distribution and abundance in Hawaii. [in:] M. Aluja, P. Liedo (eds.). Fruit flies: biology and management. Springer, New York, 137–143.
Hagen K.S., William W.W., Tassan R.L. 1981. Mediterranean fruit fly. The worst may be yet to come. California Agriculture 35(3): 5–7.
Hendrichs J., Hendrichs M.A. 1990. Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in nature: Location and diel pattern of feeding and other activities on fruiting and nonfruiting hosts and nonhosts. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83(3): 632–641.
Hendrichs J., Katsoyannos B.I., Papaj D.R., Prokopy R.J. 1991. Sex differences in movement between natural feeding and mating sites and tradeoffs between food consumption, mating success and predator evasion in Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Oecologia 86(2): 223–231.
Israely N., Yuval B., Kitron U., Nestel D. 1997. Population fluctuations of adult Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Mediterranean heterogeneous agricultural region. Environmental Entomology 26(6): 1263–1269.
Katsoyannos B.I., Kouloussis N.A., Carey J.R. 1998. Seasonal and annual occurrence of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Chios island: differences between two neighbouring citrus orchard. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91(1): 43–51.
Karpati J.F. 1983. The Mediterranean fruit fly (Its Importance, Detection and control). FAO, Rome, Italy.
Kourti A., Loukas M., Sourdis J. 1992. Dispersion pattern of medfly from its geographic center of origin and genetic relationships of the medfly with two close relatives. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 63(1): 63–69.
Liquido N.J., Shinoda L.A., Cunningham R.T. 1991. Host plants of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): an annotated world review. Miscellaneous publication 77. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD.
Michelakis S.E. 1991. Phenology of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann in Crete. Israel Journal of Entomology 25-26: 177–180.
Mustafa T.M., Abdel-Jabbar S. 1996. Studies on some hosts of medfly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in central highlands of Jordan. Arab Journal of Plant Protection 14(2): 91–95.
Papadopoulos N.T., Carey J.R., Katsoyannos B.I., Kouloussis N.A. 1996. Overwintering of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Greece. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 89(4): 526–534.
Papadopoulos N.T., Katsoyannos B.I., Carey J.R. 1998. Temporal changes in the composition of the overwintering larval population of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Greece. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91(4): 430–434.
Prokopy R.J., Roitberg B.D., Vargas R.I. 1994. Effect of egg load on finding and acceptance of host fruit in Ceratitis capitata flies. Physiological Entomology 19(2): 124–132.
Rivnay E. 1951. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Israel. Bulletin of Entomological Research 41(2): 321–341.
Szyniszewska A., Tatem S.J. 2014. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). PloS One 9(11): e111582.
Talhouk A.S. 1954. A list of insects found on plants of economic importance in Middle Eastern countries. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg und Berlin.
Talhouk A.S. 1969. Insects and mites injurious to crops in the middle Eastern countries. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg und Berlin.
Zervas G.A., Kateva C., Christopoulos A.D. 1995. Ways of overwintering of medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Dipt.: Tephritidae). The overwintering of larvae suspended fruits of citrus trees in Attica Greece. [in:] Proceedings, 5th Panhellenic Entomological Congress, 8-10 November 1993, Athens, Greece. Greek Entomological Society, Athens, Greece, 105–112. (in Greek)