Effects of preparation methods of mixed calcium and zinc thermal stabilizers derived from dimer fatty acid and tung-oil based C22 triacid on properties of PVC

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Calcium and zinc salts of dimer fatty acids (DFA-Ca and DFA-Zn) were synthesized using direct neutralization and metathesis technologies, respectively. The adduct of maleic anhydride and methyl eleostearate (MAME) was also converted to the corresponding zinc soap (C22TA-Zn) and calcium soap (C22TA-Ca) by the two different synthetic routes. Mixed Ca/Zn salts between DFA-Ca and DFA-Zn, and between C22TA-Zn and C22TA-Ca were used as thermal stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The PVC thermal stability was determined using Congo red test, discoloration test, torque rheological analysis and TGA. Dynamic mechanical properties were also tested. Results indicated that the DFA-Ca/DFA-Zn thermal stabilizer from direct neutralization technology was found to be superior to that of the metathesis product. The C22TA-Ca/C22TA-Zn thermal stabilizer from direct neutralization method had overall superior thermal stability, and displayed modulus and glass transition comparable to that of metathesis product. Direct neutralization method was more excellent and convenient than metathesis technology.

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