Determinants of water consumption in the dairy industry

Open access

This paper analyzes the correlations between selected technical, process and production factors, equipment profiles and water consumption statistics in four types of dairy plants. Dairy plants were surveyed both individually and in groups. Water consumption was most highly correlated (r > 0.868) with equipment profiles. The highest water consumption was observed in dairy plants operating milk powder departments. In those plants, organization and production factors could significantly reduce water consumption levels because in addition to milk powder, those plants also supplied eight other products. The indicators of water consumption per unit of the final product were correlated (at 0.820 > | r | > 0.663) with equipment profiles, the degree of process automation and employment. Variations in water consumption per unit of the final product were best explained in small plants supplying several products. The presented equations can be used to optimize water demand of various types of equipment and to determine the correlations with energy consumption for wastewater treatment. Our results can contribute to the development of water consumption models in dairy plants and the implementation of clean production standards.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Feng X. Huang L. Zhang X. & Liu Y. (2009). Water system integration in a brewhouse. Energy Conversionand Management 2 50 pp. 354-359. DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman. 2008.09.013.

  • 2. Jin-Kuk K. & Smith R. (2008). Methods to minimise water use in food processing (in Klemeš J. Smith R. Kim J-K. 2008. Handbook of water and energy management in food processing. CRC Press - Cambridge Woodhead Publishing LTD pp. 113-135).

  • 3. Kirby R.M. Bartram J. & Carr R. (2003). Water in food production and processing: quantity and quality concerns. FoodControl 14 pp. 283-299. DOI 10.1016/S0956-7135(02)00090-7.

  • 4. Klemeš J. Smith R. & Jin-Kuk K. (2008). Handbook of water and energy management in food processing. CRC Press - Cambridge Woodhead Publishing LTD. Provider: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 5. Kowalski Z. & Krupa-Żuczek K. (2007). A model of the meat waste management. Polish Journal of Chemical Technology 9 4 pp. 91-97. DOI 10.2478/v10026-007-0098-4.

  • 6. Strzelczyk M. Steinhoff-Wrześniewska A. Rajmund A. (2010). Indicators of water consumption and the quantity of wastewater formed in selected branches of food industry. PolishJournal of Chemical Technology 12 4 pp. 6-10. DOI 10.2478/ v10026-010-0040-z.

  • 7. WS Atkins Int. (1998). Environmental protection in the agro-food industry. Environmental Standards. FAPA Warszawa pp. 62-65 77 80 86-87 (in Polish).

  • 8. Central Statistical Office (2012). Environment. 2012. Warszawa pp. 141 539 ( in Polish).

  • 9. Casani S. Rouhany M. & Knøchel S. 2005. A discussion paper on challenges and limitations to water reuse and hygiene in the food industry. Water Research 6 39 pp. 1134-1146. DOI 10.1016/j.watres.2004.12.021.

  • 10. Fryer P.J. Christian G.K. & Liu W. (2006). How hygiene happens: physics and chemistry of cleaning. International Journalof Dairy Technology 2 59 pp. 1134-1146. DOI 10.1111/j.1471- -0307.2006.00249.x.

  • 11. Mavrov V. & Belieres E. (2000). Reduction of water consumption and wastewater quantities in the food industry by water recycling using membrane processes. Desalination 131 pp. 75-86. Item Identifier S0011-9164(00)90008-0.

  • 12. Olivier P. Rodriguez R. & Udaquiola S. (2008). Water use optimization in batch process industries. Part 1: design of the water network. Journal of Cleaner Production 16 pp. 1275-1286. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.06.012.

  • 13. Perle M. Kimchile S. & Shelef G. (1995). Some biochemical aspects of the anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater. Water Research 29 6 pp. 1549-1995. Item Identifier 0043- -1354(94)00248-6.

  • 14. Rüffer H. & Rosenwinkel K.H. (1998). Industrial wastewater treatment. Oficyna Wydawnicza Projprzem-EKO Bydgoszcz pp. 164-178 (in Polish-translation from German).

  • 15. Salo S. Ehavald H. Raaska L. Vokk R. & Wirtanen G. (2006). Microbial surveys in Estonian dairies. LWT 39 pp. 460-471. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2005.03.008.

  • 16. Tomaszewska M. & Białończyk L. (2012). The chemical cleaning of ceramic membrane used in UF. Polish Journalof Chemical Technology 14 3 pp. 105-109. DOI: 10.2478/ v10026-012-0092-3.

  • 17. Berlin J. Sonesson U. & Tillman A.M. (2007). A life cycle based method to minimise environmental impact of dairy production through product sequencing. Journal of CleanerProduction 15 pp. 347-356. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.07.019.

  • 18. Drastig K. Prochnow A. Kraatz S. Klauss H. & Plöchl M. (2010). Water footprint analysis for the assessment of milk production in Brandenburg (Germany). Advances inGeosciences 27 pp. 65-70. DOI: 10.5194/adgeo-27-65-2010.

  • 19. Flemmer C. (2012). Environmental input-output analysis of the New Zealand dairy industry. International Journal ofSustainable Development 15 4 pp. 313-333. DOI: 10.1504/ IJSD.2012.050030.

  • 20. Honkasalo N. Rodhe H. Dalhammar C. (2005). Environmental permitting as a driver for eco-efficiency in the dairy industry: A closer look at the IPPC directive. Journalof Cleaner Production 13 pp. 1049-1060. DOI: 10.1016/j. jclepro.2004.12.016.

  • 21. Masse L. Masse D.I. Topp E. Séguin G. Scott A. Ortega L.M. & Pariseau É. (2010). Microbial and Physico- -Chemical Characteristics of Surface Water Sources Used on Dairy Farms in Ontario. Water Quality Research Journal ofCanada 45 (3) pp. 287-294.

  • 22. Merete E. (2002). Life cycle assessment (LCA) of industrial milk production. The International Journal of Life CycleAssessment 7 2 pp. 115-126. DOI :

  • 23. Milani F.X. Nutter D. & Thoma G. (2011). Environmental impacts of dairy processing and products: A review. Journal of Dairy Science 9 94 pp. 4242-4254. DOI: 10.3168/ jds.2010-3955.

  • 24. Prasad P. Pagan R. Kauter M. & Price N. (2004). Eco-efficiency for the Dairy Processing Industry. Environmental Management Centre The University of Queensland St. Lucia 43-48 pp. 57-66.

  • 25. Sonesson U. & Berlin J. (2003). Environmental impact of future milk supply chains in Sweden: A scenario study. Journal of Cleaner Production 11 pp. 253-266. Item Identifier S0959-6526(02)00049-5.

  • 26. Steinhoff-Wrześniewska A. Rajmund A. Godzwon J. (2013). Water consumption in selected branches of food industry. Inżynieria Ekologiczna 32 pp. 164-171 (in Polish).

  • 27. Svensson B. Ekelund K. Ogura H. & Christiansson A. (2004). Characterisation of Bacillus cereus isolated from milk silo tanks at eight different dairy plants. International DairyJournal 114 pp. 17-27. DOI: 10.1016/S0958-6946(03)00152-3.

  • 28. Wojdalski J. & Dróżdż B. (2008). Eco-efficiency of dairy processing. Postępy Techniki Przetwórstwa Spożywczego.Wyższa Szkoła Menedżerska 1 pp. 89-92 (in Polish).

  • 29. Baras J.K. & Jovanovič S.T. (2006). Wastewater from dairy plants. Prehrambrena industrija-mleko i mlećni proizvodi 17 (1-2) pp. 29-38 Identifier RS2007000318 (in Serbian).

  • 30. Baskaran K. Palmowski M. & Watson B.M. (2003). Wastewater reuse and treatment options for the dairy industry. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 3 (3) pp. 85-91.

  • 31. Briao V.B. & Tavares C.R. Granhen. (2007). Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 24 4 pp. 487-497.

  • 32. Demirel B. Yenigun O. & Onay T.T. (2005). Anaerobic treatment of dairy wastewaters: a review. Process Biochemistry 40 pp. 2583-2595. DOI: 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.12.015.

  • 33. Mulligan C.N. Safi B.F. Meunier J. & Chebib J. (1993). Anaerobic Treatment of Cheese Dairy Wastewater Using the SNC Bioreactor. Water Poll. Res. J. Canada 28 3 pp. 597-619. Record number 19941300805.

  • 34. Talik B. & Kutera J. (1997). Wastewater in the dairy industry. Proceedings of the Seminar on “Methods for the treatment and management of food-processing wastewater and animal slurries from farms and animal houses”.Wyd. IMUZ Falenty pp. 7-16 (in Polish).

  • 35. Kowalczyk R. & Karp K. (2005). Energy consumption at sewage treatment in selected plant of dairy industry. ProblemyInżynierii Rolniczej 4 pp. 79-88 (in Polish).

  • 36. EPIR (2001). Energy Performance Indicator Report: Fluid Milk Plants 2001. Prepared for the National Dairy Councilof Canada.

  • 37. Wardrop Engineering Inc. (1997). Guide to Energy Effi- ciency Opportunities in the Dairy Processing Industry. National Dairy Council of Canada Mississauga Ontario 3-5 pp. 28-29.

  • 38. Bosworth M. Hummelsmose B. Christiansen K. 2000. Cleaner Production Assessment in Dairy Processing. COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS Denmark pp. 17-21.

  • 39. WS Atkins - Polska (2005). Best Available Techniques (BAT) - guidelines for the dairy industry.Warszawa pp. 23-27 (in Polish).

  • 40. Carawan R.E. Jones V.A. & Hansen A.P. (1979). Water use in a Multiproduct Dairy. Journal of Dairy Science 62 (8) pp. 1238-1242. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(79)83406-2

  • 41. Wojdalski J. Michnikowska-Plucińska T. Zdun K. & Malejko B. (1987). Dairy industry and its water-sewage economics.Gospodarka Wodna10 pp. 235-236 (in Polish).

  • 42. Dvarionienė J. Kruopienė J. & Stankevičienė J. (2012). Application of cleaner technologies in milk processing industry to improve the environmental efficiency. Clean Technologiesand Environmental Policy. DOI: 10.1007/s10098-012-0518-x.

  • 43. Vourch M. Balannec B. Chaufer B. & Dorange G. (2008). Treatment of dairy industry wastewater by reverse osmosis for water reuse. Desalination 219 pp. 190-202. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2007.05.013.

  • 44. IFC-WGB. (2007). International Finance Corporation - World Bank Group 2007. Environmental Health and Safety Guidelines for Dairy Processing April 30 pp. 1-15.

  • 45. Budny J. Giec W. Kaczorek J. Proczek T. & Pypno J. (1982). Investigations of water economy in dairy plants. III. Utilization of warm water in a dairy plant. Zesz. Nauk. AR-T w Olsztynie Technologia Żywności 17 pp. 43-53 (in Polish).

  • 46. Budny J. Wojdalski J. Matyjasek K. Michnikowska- -Plucińska T. Hamny J. & Kaczorek J. (1984a). Energy and water economics in creameries. Part IV. Variations in the water and energy consumption in a milk powdering mill. Zesz. Nauk. AR-T w Olsztynie Technologia Żywności 19 pp. 117-126 (in Polish).

  • 47. Budny J. Wojdalski J. Michnikowska-Plucińska T. Curyło P. Matyjasek K. & Kaczorek J. (1984b). Energy and water economics in a dairy plant. Part VI. Changes in water and energy consumption in a municipal dairy. Zesz. Nauk. AR-T w Olsztynie Technologia Żywności 20 pp. 60-78 (in Polish).

  • 48. Steffen Robertson & Kirsten Inc. Consulting Engineers. (1989). Water and Wastewater Management in the Dairy Industry Water Research Commission (South Africa) WRC Project No 145 TT 38/39 Pretoria (cited in Kubicki et al.78).

  • 49. Wojdalski J. Budny J. & Krasowski E. (1983). Water management in dairy plants. Przemysł Spożywczy11 pp. 482-486 (in Polish).

  • 50. Wojdalski J. & Dróżdż B. (2001). Effect of selected technical and technological factors on water consumption in the milk plants. Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University. Agriculture(Agricultural Engineering) 40 pp. 53-58.

  • 51. Wojdalski J. & Dróżdż B. (2002). Effect of various technical and organization-production factors on water consumption in milk production. Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University - SGGW 42 (Agriculture - Agricultural Engineering) pp. 51-57.

  • 52. Gaworski M. (2002). Effects of transformation of raw milk management system (model study). Annals of WarsawAgricultural University - SGGW 42 (Agriculture - Agricultural Engineering) pp. 37-43.

  • 53. Piechocki J. (1997). Method of the investigation for total energy consumption of milk processing. Acta Academiae Agriculturae ac Technicae Olstenensis Olsztyn (in Polish).

  • 54. Bunse K. Vodicka M. Schönsleben P. Brülhart M. & Ernst F.O. (2011). Integrating energy efficiency performance in production management - gap analysis between industrial needs and scientific literature. Journal of Cleaner Production 19 pp. 667-679.

  • 55. Neryng A. Wojdalski J. Budny J. & Krasowski E. (1990). Energy and water in agri-food industry). WNT Warszawa pp. 287-292 331-333 (in Polish).

  • 56. Wojdalski J. & Dróżdż B. (2012). Energy efficiency of food processing plants. Key issues and definitions. InżynieriaPrzetwórstwa Spożywczego 3 3 pp. 37-49 (in Polish).

  • 57. Wojdalski J. Dróżdż B. & Lubach M. (2005). Factors that influence on water consumption in fruit and vegetable processing plants). Postępy Techniki Przetwórstwa Spożywczego Wyższa Szkoła Menedżerska. Warszawa 1 pp. 39-43 (in Polish).

  • 58. Kaleta A. & Chojnacka A. (2009). Consideration on methods of increasing the efficiency of heat exchange in heat exchangers applied in dairy industry. Postępy Techniki PrzetwórstwaSpożywczego1 pp. 91-97 (in Polish).

  • 59. Marjanowski J. & Ostrowski J. (2002a).Causes and prevention of corrosion of power-generating machinery and equipment made of chromium-nickel stainless steel used in the dairy industry. (21st International Technological Conference on ”Problems of Energy and Environment Management in the Dairy Industry). Stowarzyszenie Naukowo-TechniczneEnergia i środowisko w mleczarstwie” - UWM w Olsztynie. Polanica Zdrój 4-6 września 2002 r. pp. 20-29 (in Polish).

  • 60. Marjanowski J. & Ostrowski J. (2002b). The corrosion of heat exchangers made of chromium-nickel steel which are corrosion resistant and the ways of its prevention. INSTAL 9 pp. 23-30 (in Polish).

  • 61. Gliński M. (2007). Modern solutions of dairy cooling systems - exemplary case. Part 1. Technika Chłodnicza i Klimatyzacyjna 9 pp. 447-452 (in Polish).

  • 62. Friedler F. & Varbanov P. (2008). Modelling and optimization tools for water minimization in the food industry (in Klemeš J. Smith R. Kim J-K. 2008). Handbook of water and energy management in food processing. CRC Press - Cambridge Woodhead Publishing LTD 200-220).

  • 63. Peng S.F. Farid M. & Wilks T. (2001). Application of Water Pinch Analysis to a Dairy Plant. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 566 pp. 199-203. Cote INIST: 15963 35400009707457.0220.

  • 64. Scheltinga H.M.J. (1972). Measures taken against water pollution in dairies and milk processing industries. Pure andApplied Chemistry 29 (1/3) pp. 101-111.

  • 65. Okoth M.W. (1992). Energy and water usage in fluid milk and milk powder plants. Discovery and Innovation 4 (3) pp. 9-15.

  • 66. Tokos H. & Novak Pintarič Z. (2009). Synthesis of batch water network for a brewery plant. Journal of Cleaner Production 17 pp. 1465-1479. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.12.007.

  • 67. Ostrowski J. & Marjanowski J. (2008). Basic criteria for the selection of water treatment station for steam boilers and generators In the dairy industry (27th International Technological Conference on ”Problems of Energy and Environment Management in the Dairy Industry. Stowarzyszenie Naukowo- -TechniczneEnergia i środowisko w mleczarstwie” - UWM w Olsztynie. Pułtusk 2-5 września 2008 r. pp. 77-90 (in Polish).

  • 68. Ostrowski J. Marjanowski J. Zander Z. Dąbrowski J. & Sejdak C. (2006). Selected problems of the whey processing condensate and permeate treatment and utilization (25th International Technological Conference on ”Problems of Energy and Environment Management in the Dairy Industry”). Stowarzyszenie Naukowo-TechniczneEnergia i środowisko w mleczarstwie” - UWM w Olsztynie. Ryn k. Giżycka 5-7 września 2006 r. pp. 166-172 (in Polish).

  • 69. Zander Z. & Dajnowiec F. (2009). Water management in dairy industry. AGRO Przemysł 3 pp. 50-52 ( in Polish).

  • 70. Zander Z. Dajnowiec F. & Zander L. (2010).Water In food industry. Przemysł Spożywczy 6411 pp. 27-31 (in Polish).

  • 71. Rausch K.D. & Powell G.M. (1997). Methods to Reduce Water Use and Liquid Waste Load. Kansas State University MF-2071.

  • 72. Brush A. Masanet E. & Worrell E. (2011). Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers. Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley CA 94720.

  • 73. Anielak A. (2008). Dairy industry and its water-sewage economics. Agro Przemysł 2 pp. 57-59 (in Polish).

  • 74. Ikhu-Omoregbe D.I. & Masiiwa H. (2002). A postal survey of effluent generation and disposal in the Zimbabwean dairy industry. Water SA 28 2 pp. 179-182.

  • 75. Janczukowicz W. Zieliński M. & Dębowski M. (2008). Biodegradability evaluation of dairy effluents originated in selected sections of dairy production. Bioresource Technology 99 pp. 4199-4205. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.072.

  • 76. Nadais H. Capela I. Arroja L. & Duarte A. (2005). Treatment of dairy wastewater in UASB reactors inoculated with flocculent biomass. Water SA 31 4 pp. 603-607.

  • 77. Özbay A. & Demirer G.N. (2007). Cleaner production opportunity assessment for a milk processing facility. Journal ofEnvironmental Management 84 (4) pp. 484-493. DOI: 10.1016/j. jenvman.2006.06.021.

  • 78. Kubicki M. Cavey A. Eyars R. Hill S. & Simpson A. (1998). Environmental protection in the dairy industry. Wyd. FAPA Warszawa pp. 27-28 44-46 (in Polish).

  • 79. Williams P.J. & Anderson P.A. (2006). Operational cost savings in dairy plant water usage. International Journalof Dairy Technology 59 2 pp. 147-154. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471- -0307.2006.00256.x.

  • 80. Maxime D. Marcotte M. & Arcand Y. (2006). Development of eco-efficiency indicators for the Canadian food and beverage industry. Journal of Cleaner Production 14 pp. 636-648. DOI: 10.1016/j.clepro.2005.07.015.

  • 81. Wendorff B. (2007). Wastewater volume - How do we compare? UW Dairy Alert! A Technical Update for Dairy Product Manufacturers May. Dept. of Food Science University of Wisconsin - Madison.

  • 82. Perry C. (2011). Accounting for water use: Terminology and implications for saving water and increasing production. Agricultural Water Management 98 pp. 1840-1846.

  • 83. Berlin J. (2002). Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of Swedish semi-hard cheese. International Dairy Journal 11(12) pp. 939-953. DOI: 10.1016/S0958-6946 (02) 00112-7.

  • 84. Thomassen M.A. Dalgaard R. Heijungs R. & Boer I. (2008). Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 13 (4) pp. 339-349. DOI 10.1007/s11367-008-0007-y.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.975
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.878

CiteScore 2018: 1

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.269
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.46

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 989 553 3
PDF Downloads 417 265 3