Our work presents the results of the research on the utilization of ashes after sewage sludge combustion comprising phosphorus recovery in the form of useful products. The investigations were divided into three parts: selecting the combustion parameters of sewage sludge, examining ash leaching with mineral acids (nitric and phosphoric) to high phosphorus selectivity assuring a low content of iron and heavy metals in the extracted solutions and precipitation of CaHPO4 .2H2O. Suitable temperature of a sewage sludge combustion enables selective extraction of phosphorus compounds from ash because of hematite phase forming, insoluble in mineral acids. The extracts from phosphoric acid leaching, where the extraction of phosphorus compounds was 96.1%, have very good properties for its further use as the initial solution for CaHPO4 .2H2O with 6% lime milk. The obtained product is characterized by high purity and phosphorus availability compatible even with the feed phosphate standard.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Morse G.K. Lester J.N. & Perry R. (1993). The economicand environmental impact of phosphorus removal from wastewaterin the European Community. Selpher Publications London.
2. Jasinski S.M. (2010). U.S. Geological Survey MineralCommodity Summaries chapter Phosphate Rock. United States Government Printing Offi ce Washington.
3. Schröder J.J. Cordell D. Smit A.L. & Rosemarin A. (2009). Sustainable use of phosphorus European Union tenderproject ENV.B.1/ETU/2009/0025. Report 357. Plant Research International Wageningen University and Research Centre Wageningen The Netherlands. Retrieved March 23 2011 from: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/natres/phosphorus.htm.
4. Steen I. (1998). Phosphorus availability in the 21st century: Management of a non-renewable resources. Phosphorus andPotassium 217 25-31.
5. Schröder J.J. Smit A.L. Cordell D. & Rosemarin A. (2011). Improved phosphorus use effi ciency in agriculture: A key requirement for its sustainable use. Chemosphere 84 822-831. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.01.065.
6. Smith V. (1999). Eutrophication: impacts of excess nutrients of freshwater marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Environ.Pollut. 100 179-196.
7. Andersen A. (2003). Disposal and recycling routes for sewage sludge- report for the UE Commission - DG - Environment - B/2 SEDES. CEEP Scope Newsl. 50 2-3. Retrieved 12 September 2010 from: http://www.ceep-phosphates.org/Files/ Newsletter/scope50.pdf.
8. Kowalski Z. Przewrocki P. Kulczycka J. Wzorek Z. Gorazda K. & Jodko M. (2004). Risk Analysis of Sewage Sludge - Poland and EU Comparative Approach. Pol. J. Environ.Stud. 13(2) 237-244.
9. Dulley B. (2001). Recycling phosphorus by recovery from sewage. In: Conference Summary - Second International Conference on the recovery of phosphorus from sewage and animal wastes 12-13 March 2011 Noordwijkerhout Netherlands.
10. Lundin M. Olofsson M. Pettersson G.J. & Zetterlund H. (2004). Environmental and economic assessment of sewage sludge handling options. Resour. Conserv. Recyc. 41(4) 255-278. DOI:10.1016/j.resconrec.2003.10.006.
11. Stark K. Plaza E. & Hultman B. (2006). Phosphorus release from ash dried sludge and sludge residue from supercritical water oxidation by acid or base. Chemosphere 62 (5) 827-832. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.069.
12. Rittmann B.E. Mayer B. Westerhoff P. & Mark Edwards M. (2011). Capturing the lost phosphorus. Chemosphere 84 846-853. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.001.
13. Takahashi M. Kato S. Shima H. Sarai E. Ichioka T. Hatykawa S. & Miyajiri H. (2001). Technology for recovering phosphorus from incinerated wastewater treatment sludge. Chemosphere 44 23-29.
14. Stasta P. Boran J. Bebar L. Stehlik P. & Oral J. (2006). Thermal processing of sewage sludge. Appl. Therm. Eng. 26(13) 1420-1426. DOI:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.05.030.
15. Jozuka T. (2001). P-recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash. CEEP Scope Newsl. 43 7-8. Retrieved 11 September 2010 from: http://www.ceep-phosphates.org/Files/ Newsletter/scope43.pdf.
16. Suzuki Y. (2003). P-recovery from sewage-sludge incineration ash. CEEP Scope Newsl. 52 4-5. Retrieved 22 September 2011 from: http://www.ceep-phosphates.org/Files/ Newsletter/Scope52.pdf.
17. Nakahara K. & Hoshino Y. (2000). US Patent No.6022514. Washington D.C.: US Patents and Trademarks Offi ce.
18. Vogel C. Adam C. Peplinski B. & Wellendorf S. (2010). Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr 56(4) 627-635. DOI:10.1111/j.1747- -0765.2010.00485.x.
19. Adam C. Peplinski B. Michaelis M. Kley G. & Simon F. (2009). Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ashes for phosphorus recovery. Waste Manage. 29(3) 1122-1128. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.09.011.
20. Mattenberger H. Fraissler G. Brunner T. Herk P. Hermann L. & Obernberger I. (2008). Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertilizer: Variables infl uencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment. Waste Manage. 28 (12) 2709-2722. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.01.005.
21. Mattenberger H. Fraissler G. Jöller M. Brunner T. Obernberger I. Herk P. & Hermann L. (2010). Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertilizer (II): Infl uences of ash and granulate type on heavy metal removal. Waste Manage. 30 (8-9) 1622-1633. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.03.037.
22. Nowak B. Perutka L. Aschenbrenner P. Kraus P. Rechberger H. & Winter F. (2011). Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash. Waste Manage. 31 (6) 1285-1291. DOI: 10.1016/j. wasman.2011.01.029.
23. Donatello S. Tong D. & Cheeseman C.R. (2010). Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA). Waste Manage. 30 (8-9) 1634-1642. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.04.009.
24. Franz M. (2008). Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA). Waste Manage. 28(10) 1809-1818. DOI: 10.1016/j. wasman.2007.08.011.
25. Gorazda K. Kowalski Z. Wzorek Z. Jodko M. Rzepecki T. Kulczycka J. Przewrocki P. (2003). Possibilities of Phosphorus Recovering from Municipal Sewage and Sewage Sludge. Pol. J. Appl. Chem. 2 51-63.
26. Gorazda K. (2004). Research on phosphorus recovery fromsewage sludge formed after simultaneous municipal sewage treatmentwith the use of iron sulfate as a phosphorus compoundsprecipitating agent. Unpublished doctoral dissertation Cracow University of Technology Cracow Poland.
27. Gorazda K. Wzorek Z. & Jodko M. (2005). Phosphorus compounds extraction from the ash after sewage sludge combustion. Pol. J. Chem. Technol. 7(1) 24-28.
28. Gorazda K. & Wzorek Z. (2006). Selection of leaching agent for phosphorus compounds extraction from the sewage sludge ash. Pol. J. Chem. Technol. 8(3) 15-18.
29. Gorazda K. Wzorek Z. & Jodko M. (2007). The infl uence of the thermal processing of sewage sludge on the usage properties of the formed ash. Pol. J. Chem. Technol. 9(4) 21-27. DOI: 10.2478/v10026-007-0083-y.